An ideal Bose-Einstein condensate: From Anderson localization to precision measurements

Year: 2010

Authors: Roati G., Deissler B., D’Errico C., Fallani L., Fattori M., Fort C., Jona-Lasinio M., Zaccanti M., Modugno M., Modugno G., Inguscio M.

Autors Affiliation: Univ Florence, LENS, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; Univ Florence, Dipartimento Fis, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; Museo Stor Fis, I-00184 Rome, Italy; Ctr Studi & Ric E Fermi, I-00184 Rome, Italy; Univ Povo, BEC INFM Ctr, I-38050 Povo, Italy

Abstract: The experimental achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in dilute atomic systems has opened up the Study of several quantum phenomena, linking together different subfields of physics. In particular, Bose-Einstein condensates in optical potentials represent a great opportunity for engineering simple quantum systems, acting as a quantum simulator Of Much more complicated physics.
Here we describe two different experiments that show the high potentialities offered by combining a tunable interacting BEC of potassium atoms and periodic potentials. In the first experiment we trap the ideal BEC in a quasi-periodic potential obtained Superimposing two laser standing waves with incommensurate wavelengths. in this case we observe the Anderson transition from extended to exponentially localized states with coherent matter waves. We clearly demonstrate localization by investigating transport properties, spatial and momentum distributions. Since the interaction in the condensate can be controlled, thanks to a broad Feshbach resonance, this system represents a novel tool to Solve fundamental questions on the interplay of disorder and interaction and to explore exotic quantum phases.
In a second experiment we instead realize an atomic lattice-based interferometer with very high-spatial resolution. We measure a strong increase of the coherence time of the interferometer with vanishing scattering lengths, and we get evidence of the effect of the weak magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Volume: 42 (3)      Pages from: 425  to: 431

KeyWords: Anderson localization; Anderson transition; Atom interferometry; Atomic lattice; Atomic system; Bose-Einstein condensates; Coherence time; Coherent matter waves; Disordered system; Feshbach resonances; High spatial resolution; Localized state; Magnetic dipole-dipole interaction; Momentum distributions; Optical potential; Periodic potentials; Potassium atoms; Precision measurement; Quantum phasis; Quantum phenomena; Quantum simulators; Quasi-periodic; Scattering length; Simple quantum systems; Standing wave; Subfields, Atoms; Bose-Einstein condensation; Coherent scattering; Condensation; Interferometers; Interferometry; Potassium; Quantum optics; Semiconductor quantum dots; Statistical mechanics; Steam condensers; Transport properties, Experiment
DOI: 10.1016/j.physe.2009.06.041

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