Beating the spin-down limit on gravitational wave emission from the Vela pulsar

Year: 2011

Authors: Abadie J., Abbott B. P., Abbott R., Abernathy M., Accadia T., Acernese F., Adams C., Adhikari R., Affeldt C., Allen B., Allen G. S., Amador Ceron E., Amariutei D., Amin R. S., Anderson S. B., Anderson W. G., Antonucci F., Arai K., Arain M. A., Araya M. C., Aston S. M., Astone P., Atkinson D., Aufmuth P., Aulbert C., Aylott B. E., Babak S., Baker P., Ballardin G., Ballmer S., Barker D., Barnum S., Barone F., Barr B., Barriga P., Barsotti L., Barsuglia M., Barton M. A., Bartos I., Bassiri R., Bastarrika M., Basti A., Bauchrowitz J., Bauer Th. S., Behnke B., Bejger M., Beker M. G., Bell A. S., Belletoile A., Belopolski I., Benacquista M., Bertolini A., Betzwieser J., Beveridge N., Beyersdorf P. T., Bilenko I. A., Billingsley G., Birch J., Birindelli S., Biswas R., Bitossi M., Bizouard M. A., Black E. , Blackburn J. K., Blackburn L., Blair D., Bland B., Blom M., Bock O., Bodiya T. P., Bogan C., Bondarescu R., Bondu F., Bonelli L., Bonnand R., Bork R., Born M., Boschi V., Bose S., Bosi L., Bouhou B., Boyle M., Braccini S., Bradaschia C., Brady P. R., Braginsky V. B., Brau J. E., Breyer J., Bridges D. O., Brillet A., Brinkmann M., Brisson V., Britzger M., Brooks A. F., Brown D. A., Brummit A., Budzynski R., Bulik T., Bulten H. J., Buonanno A., Burguet–Castell J., Burmeister O., Buskulic D., Buy C., Byer R. L., Cadonati L., Cagnoli G., Cain J., Calloni E., Camp J. B., Campagna E., Campsie P., Cannizzo J., Cannon K., Canuel B., Cao J., Capano C. D., Carbognani F., Caride S., Caudill S., Cavaglià M., Cavalier F., Cavalieri R., Cella G., Cepeda C., Cesarini E., Chaibi O., Chalermsongsak T., Chalkley E., Charlton P., Chassande-Mottin E., Chelkowski S., Chen Y., Chincarini A., Christensen N., Chua S. S. Y., Chung C. T. Y., Chung S., Clara F., Clark D. E., Clark J., Clayton J. H., Cleva F., Coccia E., Colacino C. N., Colas J., Colla A., Colombini M., Conte R., Cook D., Corbitt T. R., Cornish N., Corsi A., Costa C. A., Coughlin M., Coulon J.-P., Coward D. M., Coyne D. C., Creighton J. D. E., Creighton T. D., Cruise A. M., Culter R.M., Cumming A., Cunningham L., Cuoco E., Dahl K., Danilishin S. L., Dannenberg R., D’Antonio S., Danzmann K., Das K., Dattilo V., Daudert B., Daveloza H., Davier M., Davies G., Daw E. J., Day R., Dayanga T., De Rosa R., DeBra D., Debreczeni G., Degallaix J., del Prete M., Dent T., Dergachev V., DeRosa R., DeSalvo R., Dhurandhar S., Di Fiore L., Di Lieto A., Di Palma I., Di Paolo Emilio M., Di Virgilio A., Díaz M., Dietz A., Donovan F., Dooley K. L., Dorsher S., Douglas E. S. D., Drago M., Drever R. W. P., Driggers J. C., Dumas J.-C., Dwyer S., Eberle T., Edgar M., Edwards M., Effler A., Ehrens, P., Engel R., Etzel T., Evans M., Evans T., Factourovich M., Fafone V., Fairhurst S., Fan Y., Farr B. F., Fazi D., Fehrmann H., Feldbaum D., Ferrante I., Fidecaro F., Finn L. S., Fiori I., Flaminio R., Flanigan M., Foley S., Forsi E., Forte L. A., Fotopoulos N., Fournier J.-D., Franc J., Frasca S., Frasconi F., Frede M., Frei M., Frei Z., Freise A., Frey R., Fricke T. T., Friedrich D., Fritschel P., Frolov V. V., Fulda P. J., Fyffe M., Galimberti M., Gammaitoni L., Garcia J., Garofoli J. A., Garufi F., Gáspár M. E., Gemme G., Genin E., Gennai A., Ghosh S., Giaime J. A., Giampanis S., Giardina K. D., Giazotto A., Gill C., Goetz E., Goggin L. M., González G., Gorodetsky M. L., Goßler S., Gouaty R., Graef C., Granata M., Grant A., Gras S., Gray C., Greenhalgh R. J. S., Gretarsson A. M., Greverie C., Grosso R., Grote H., Grunewald S., Guidi G. M., Guido C., Gupta R., Gustafson E. K., Gustafson R., Hage B., Hallam J. M., Hammer D., Hammond G., Hanks J., Hanna C., Hanson J., Harms J., Harry G. M., Harry I. W., Harstad E. D., Hartman M. T., Haughian K., Hayama K., Hayau J.-F., Hayler T., Heefner J., Heitmann H., Hello P., Hendry M. A., Heng I. S., Heptonstall A. W., Herrera V., Hewitson M., Hild S., Hoak D., Hodge K. A., Holt K., Hong T., Hooper S., Hosken D. J., Hough J., Howell E. J., Huet D., Hughey B., Husa S., Huttner S. H., Ingram D. R., Inta R., Isogai T., Ivanov A., Jaranowski P., Johnson W. W., Jones D. I., Jones G., Jones R., Ju L., Kalmus P., Kalogera V., Kandhasamy S., Kanner J. B., Katsavounidis E., Katzman W., Kawabe K., Kawamura S., Kawazoe F., Kells W., Kelner M., Keppel D. G., Khalaidovski A., Khalili F. Y., Khazanov E. A., Kim H., Kim N., King P. J., Kinzel D.L., Kissel J. S., Klimenko S., Kondrashov V., Kopparapu R., Koranda S., Korth W. Z., Kowalska I., Kozak D., Kringel V., Krishnamurthy S., Krishnan B., Królak A., Kuehn G., Kumar R., Kwee P., Landry M., Lantz B., Lastzka N., Lazzarini A., Leaci P., Leong J. R., Leonor I., Leroy N., Letendre N., Li J., Li T. G. F., Liguori N., Lindquist P. E., Lockerbie N. A., Lodhia D., Lorenzini M., Loriette V., Lormand M., Losurdo G., Lu P., Luan J., Lubinski M., Lück H., Lundgren A. P., Macdonald E., Machenschalk B., MacInnis M., Mageswaran M., Mailand K., Majorana E., Maksimovic I., Man N., Mandel I., Mandic V., Mantovani M., Marandi A., Marchesoni F., Marion F., Márka S., Márka Z., Maros E., Marque J., Martelli F., Martin I. W., Martin R. M., Marx J. N., Mason K., Masserot A., Matichard F., Matone L., Matzner R. A., Mavalvala N., McCarthy R., McClelland D. E., McGuire S. C., McIntyre G., McKechan D. J. A., Meadors G. D., Mehmet M., Meier T., Melatos A., Melissinos A. C., Mendell G., Mercer R. A., Merill L., Meshkov S., Messenger C., Meyer M. S., Miao H., Michel C., Milano L., Miller J., Minenkov Y., Mino Y., Mitrofanov V. P., Mitselmakher G., Mittleman R., Miyakawa O., Moe B., Moesta P., Mohan M., Mohanty S. D., Mohapatra S. R. P., Moraru D., Moreno G., Morgado N., Morgia A., Mosca S., Moscatelli V., Mossavi K., Mours B., Mow–Lowry C. M., Mueller G., Mukherjee S., Mullavey A., Müller-Ebhardt H., Munch J., Murray P. G., Nash T., Nawrodt R., Nelson J., Neri I., Newton G., Nishida E., Nishizawa A., Nocera F., Nolting D., Ochsner E., O’Dell J., Ogin G. H., Oldenburg R. G., O’Reilly B., O’Shaughnessy R., Osthelder C., Ott C. D., Ottaway D. J., Ottens R. S., Overmier H., Owen B. J., Page A., Pagliaroli G., Palladino L., Palomba C., Pan Y., Pankow C., Paoletti F., Papa M. A., Parameswaran A., Pardi S., Parisi M., Pasqualetti A., Passaquieti R., Passuello D., Patel P., Pathak D., Pedraza M., Pekowsky L., Penn S., Peralta C., Perreca A., Persichetti G., Phelps M., Pichot M., Pickenpack M., Piergiovanni F., Pietka M., Pinard L., Pinto I. M., Pitkin M., Pletsch H. J., Plissi M. V., Podkaminer J., Poggiani R., Pöld J., Postiglione F., Prato M., Predoi V., Price L. R., Prijatelj M., Principe M., Privitera S., Prix R., Prodi G. A., Prokhorov L. G., Puncken O., Punturo M., Puppo P., Quetschke V., Raab F. J., Rabeling D. S., Rácz I., Radkins H., Raffai P., Rakhmanov M., Ramet C. R., Rankins B., Rapagnani P., Raymond V., Re V., Redwine K., Reed C. M., Reed T., Regimbau T., Reid S., Reitze D. H., Ricci F., Riesen R., Riles K., Roberts P., Robertson N. A., Robinet F., Robinson C., Robinson E. L., Rocchi A., Roddy S., Rolland L., Rollins J. G., Romano J. D., Romano R., Romie J. H., Rosińska D., Röver C., Rowan S., Rüdiger A., Ruggi P., Ryan K., Sakata S., Sakosky M., Salemi F., Salit M., Sammut L., Sancho de la Jordana L., Sandberg V., Sannibale V., Santamaría L., Santiago-Prieto I., Santostasi G., Saraf S., Sassolas B., Sathyaprakash B. S., Sato S., Satterthwaite M., Saulson P. R., Savage R. L., Schilling R., Schlamminger S., Schnabel R., Schofield R. M. S., Schulz B., Schutz B. F., Schwinberg P., Scott J., Scott S. M., Searle A. C., Seifert F., Sellers D., Sengupta A. S., Sentenac D., Sergeev A., Shaddock D. A., Shaltev M., Shapiro B., Shawhan P., Shihan Weerathunga T., Shoemaker D. H., Sibley A., Siemens X., Sigg D., Singer A., Singer L., Sintes A. M., Skelton G. R., Slagmolen B. J. J., Slutsky J., Smith J. R., Smith M. R., Smith R., Smith N. D., Somiya K., Sorazu B., Soto J., Speirits F. C., Sperandio L., Stefszky M., Stein A. J., Steinlechner J., Steinlechner S., Steplewski S., Stochino A., Stone R., Strain K. A., Strigin S. E., Stroeer A. S., Sturani R., Stuver A. L., Summerscales T. Z., Sung M., Susmithan S., Sutton P. J., Swinkels B., Szokoly G. P., Tacca M., Talukder D., Tanner D. B., Tarabrin S. P., Taylor J. R., Taylor R., Thomas P., Thorne K. A., Thorne K. S., Thrane E., Thüring A., Titsler C., Tokmakov K. V., Toncelli A., Tonelli M., Torre O., Torres C., Torrie C. I., Tournefier E., Travasso F., Traylor G., Trias M., Tseng K., Turner L., Ugolini D., Urbanek K., Vahlbruch H., Vaishnav B., Vajente G., Vallisneri M., van den Brand J. F. J., Van Den Broeck C., van der Putten S., van der Sluys M. V., van Veggel A. A., Vass S., Vasuth M., Vaulin R., Vavoulidis M., Vecchio A., Vedovato G., Veitch J., Veitch P. J., Veltkamp C., Verkindt D., Vetrano F., Viceré A., Villar A. E., Vinet J.-Y., Vocca H., Vorvick C., Vyatchanin S. P., Waldman S. J., Wallace L., Wanner A., Ward R. L., Was M., Wei P., Weinert M., Weinstein A. J., Weiss R., Wen L., Wen S., Wessels P., West M., Westphal T., Wette K., Whelan J. T., Whitcomb S. E., White D. J., Whiting B. F., Wilkinson C., Willems P. A., Williams L., Williams H. R., Willke B., Winkelmann L., Winkler W., Wipf C. C., Wiseman A. G., Woan G., Wooley R., Worden J., Yablon J., Yakushin I., Yamamoto H., Yamamoto K., YYang H., Yeaton-Massey D., Yoshida S., Yu P., Yvert M., Zanolin M., Zhang L., Zhang Z., Zhao C., Zotov N., Zucker M. E., Zweizig J., Buchner S., Hotan A., Palfreyman J.

Autors Affiliation: CALTECH, LIGO, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA; Univ Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland; Univ Savoie, CNRS IN2P3, Lab Annecy le Vieux Phys Particules LAPP, F-74941 Annecy Le Vieux, France; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, I-80126 Naples, Italy; Univ Salerno, I-84084 Salerno, Italy; LIGO Livingston Observ, Livingston, LA 70754 USA; Max Planck Inst Gravitat Phys, Albert Einstein Inst, D-30167 Hannover, Germany; Leibniz Univ Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany; Univ Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA; Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA 94305 USA; Univ Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA; Louisiana State Univ, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma, I-00185 Rome, Italy; Univ Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England; LIGO Hanford Observ, Richland, WA 99352 USA; Max Planck Inst Gravitat Phys, Albert Einstein Inst, D-14476 Golm, Germany; Montana State Univ, Bozeman, MT 59717 USA; EGO, I-56021 Cascina, PI, Italy; Carleton Coll, Northfield, MN 55057 USA; Univ Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia; MIT, LIGO, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA; Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS IN2P3, CEA DSM IRFU, Lab AstroParticule & Cosmol APC,Observ Paris, F-75013 Paris, France; Columbia Univ, New York, NY 10027 USA; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy; Univ Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy; Nikhef, Amsterdam, Netherlands; CAMK PAN, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland; Univ Texas Brownsville & Texas Southmost Coll, Brownsville, TX 78520 USA; San Jose State Univ, San Jose, CA 95192 USA; Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Moscow 119992, Russia; Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observ Cote Azur, F-06304 Nice, France; Univ Paris 11, LAL, CNRS IN2P3, F-91898 Orsay, France; Penn State Univ, University Pk, PA 16802 USA; Univ Rennes 1, CNRS, Inst Phys Rennes, F-35042 Rennes, France; IN2P3 CNRS, LMA, F-69622 Lyon, France; Washington State Univ, Pullman, WA 99164 USA; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy; Caltech CaRT, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA; Univ Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 USA; Syracuse Univ, Syracuse, NY 13244 USA; HSIC, Rutherford Appleton Lab, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England; Warsaw Univ, Astron Observ, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland; Vrije Univ Amsterdam, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands; Univ Maryland, College Pk, MD 20742 USA; Univ Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 USA; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy; Univ Mississippi, University, MS 38677 USA; Univ Naples Federico II, I-80126 Naples, Italy; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA; Univ Urbino Carlo Bo, I-61029 Urbino, Italy; Tsinghua Univ, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China; Univ Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA; Charles Sturt Univ, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Genova, I-16146 Genoa, Italy; Australian Natl Univ, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia; Univ Melbourne, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia; Cardiff Univ, Cardiff CF24 3AA, S Glam, Wales; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Milan, Italy; Univ Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy; Univ Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome, Italy; Univ Salerno, I-84084 Salerno, Italy; Univ Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England; RMKI, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary; Univ Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy; Interuniv Ctr Astron & Astrophys, Pune 411007, Maharashtra, India; Univ Aquila, I-67100 Laquila, Italy; Univ Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Padova, I-35131 Padua, Italy; Univ Padua, I-35131 Padua, Italy; Northwestern Univ, Evanston, IL 60208 USA; Univ Texas Austin, Austin, TX 78712 USA; Eotvos Lorand Univ, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary; Univ Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy; Embry Riddle Aeronaut Univ, Prescott, AZ 86301 USA; Natl Inst Nat Sci, Natl Astron Observ Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 1818588, Japan; Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia; Univ Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain; Bialystok Univ, PL-15424 Bialystok, Poland; Univ Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, Hants, England; Inst Appl Phys, Nizhnii Novgorod 603950, Russia; IM PAN, PL-00956 Warsaw, Poland; IPJ, PL-05400 Otwock, Poland; Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Grp Collegato Trento, I-38050 Trento, Italy; Univ Trent, I-38050 Trento, Italy; Univ Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ, Lanark, Scotland; CNRS, ESPCI, F-75005 Paris, France; Southern Univ, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA; A&M Coll, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA; Univ Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 USA; Hobart & William Smith Coll, Geneva, NY 14456 USA; Univ Sannio Benevento, I-82100 Benevento, Italy; Louisiana Tech Univ, Ruston, LA 71272 USA; Andrews Univ, Berrien Springs, MI 49104 USA; Inst Astron, PL-65265 Zielona Gora, Poland; McNeese State Univ, Lake Charles, LA 70609 USA; Sonoma State Univ, Rohnert Pk, CA 94928 USA; Calif State Univ Fullerton, Fullerton, CA 92831 USA; Trinity Univ, San Antonio, TX 78212 USA; Rochester Inst Technol, Rochester, NY 14623 USA; SE Louisiana Univ, Hammond, LA 70402 USA; Hartebeesthoek Radio Astron Observ, ZA-1740 Krugersdorp, South Africa; Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Phys, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa; CSIRO Astron & Space Sci, Epping, NSW 1710, Australia; Univ Tasmania, Sch Math & Phys, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia

Abstract: We present direct upper limits on continuous gravitational wave emission from the Vela pulsar using data from the Virgo detector’s second science run. These upper limits have been obtained using three independent methods that assume the gravitational wave emission follows the radio timing. Two of the methods produce frequentist upper limits for an assumed known orientation of the star’s spin axis and value of the wave polarization angle of, respectively, 1.9 x 10(-24) and 2.2 x 10(-24), with 95% confidence. The third method, under the same hypothesis, produces a Bayesian upper limit of 2.1 x 10(-24), with 95% degree of belief. These limits are below the indirect spin-down limit of 3.3 x 10(-24) for the Vela pulsar, defined by the energy loss rate inferred from observed decrease in Vela’s spin frequency, and correspond to a limit on the star ellipticity of similar to 10(-3). Slightly less stringent results, but still well below the spin-down limit, are obtained assuming the star’s spin axis inclination and the wave polarization angles are unknown.

Journal/Review: ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL

Volume: 737 (2)      Pages from: 93  to: 93

More Information: The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the United States National Science Foundation for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory, the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck-Society, the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction and operation of the GEO600 detector, and the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the support of the research by these agencies and by the Australian Research Council, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare of Italy, the Spanish Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia, the Conselleria d\’Economia Hisenda i Innovacio of the Govern de les Illes Balears, the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, the FOCUS Programme of Foundation for Polish Science, the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Carnegie Trust, the Leverhulme Trust, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Research Corporation, and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.
KeyWords: gravitational waves; pulsars: individual (PSR J0835-4510); stars: neutron; neutron-stars; timing package
DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/737/2/93

Citations: 82
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