The European Solar Telescope
Authors: C. Quintero Noda; R. Schlichenmaier; L. R. Bellot Rubio; M. G. Ltzfdahl; E. Khomenko; J. Jurcbk; J. Leenaarts; C. Kuckein; S. J. Gonzblez Manrique; S. Gunbr; C. J. Nelson; J. de la Cruz Rodrnguez; K. Tziotziou; G. Tsiropoula; G. Aulanier; J. Aboudarham; D. Allegri; E. Alsina Ballester; J. P. Amans; A. Asensio Ramos; F. J. Bailyn; M. Balaguer; V. Baldini; H. Balthasar; T. Barata; K. Barczynski; M. Barreto Cabrera; A. Baur; C. Bychet; C. Beck; M. Belno-Asnn; N. Bello-Gonzblez; L. Belluzzi; R. D. Bentley; S. V. Berdyugina; D. Berghmans; A. Berlicki; F. Berrilli; T. Berkefeld; F. Bettonvil; M. Bianda; J. Bienes Pyrez; S. Bonaque-Gonzblez; R. Braja; V. Bommier; P.-A. Bourdin; J. Burgos Martnn; D. Calchetti; A. Calcines; J. Calvo Tovar; R. J. Campbell; Y. Carballo-Martnn; V. Carbone; E. S. Carlin; M. Carlsson; J. Castro Lupez; L. Cavaller; F. Cavallini; G. Cauzzi; M. Cecconi; H. M. Chulani; R. Cirami; G. Consolini; I. Coretti; R. Cosentino; J. Cuzar-Castellano; K. Dalmasse; S. Danilovic; M. De Juan Ovelar; D. Del Moro; T. del Pino Alembn; J. C. del Toro Iniesta; C. Denker; S. K. Dhara; P. Di Marcantonio; C. J. Dnaz Baso; A. Diercke; E. Dineva; J. J. Dnaz-Garcna; H.-P. Doerr; G. Doyle; R. Erdelyi; I. Ermolli; A. Escobar Rodrnguez; S. Esteban Pozuelo; M. Faurobert; T. Felipe; A. Feller; N. Feijoo Amoedo; B. Femenna Castellb; J. Fernandes; I. Ferro Rodrnguez; I. Figueroa; L. Fletcher; A. Franco Ordovas; R. Gafeira; R. Gardenghi; B. Gelly; F. Giorgi; D. Gisler; L. Giovannelli; F. Gonzblez; J. B. Gonzblez; J. M. Gonzblez-Cava; M. Gonzblez Garcna; P. Gtzmtzry; F. Gracia; B. Grauf; V. Greco; C. Grivel; N. Guerreiro; S. L. Guglielmino; R. Hammerschlag; A. Hanslmeier; V. Hansteen; P. Heinzel; A. Hernbndez-Delgado; E. Hernbndez Subrez; S. L. Hidalgo; F. Hill; J. Hizberger; S. Hofmeister; A. Jdgers; G. Janett; R. Jarolim; D. Jess; D. Jimynez Mejnas; L. Jolissaint; R. Kamlah; J. Kapitbn; J. Kaparovb; C. U. Keller; T. Kentischer; D. Kiselman; L. Kleint; M. Klvana; I. Kontogiannis; N. Krishnappa; A. Kucera; N. Labrosse; A. Lagg; E. Landi Degl’Innocenti; M. Langlois; M. Lafon; D. Laforgue; C. Le Men; B. Lepori; F. Lepreti; B. Lindberg; P. B. Lilje; A. Lupez Ariste; V. A. Lupez Fernbndez; A. C. Lupez Jimynez; R. Lupez Lupez; R. Manso Sainz; A. Marassi; J. Marco de la Rosa; J. Marino; J. Marrero; A. Martnn; A. Martnn Gblvez; Y. Martnn Hernando; E. Masciadri; M. Martnnez Gonzblez; A. Matta-Gumez; A. Mato; M. Mathioudakis; S. Matthews; P. Mein; F. Merlos Garcna; J. Moity; I. Montilla; M. Molinaro; G. Molodij; L. M. Montoya; M. Munari; M. Murabito; M. N
Autors Affiliation: Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Tenerife, La Laguna, 38205, Spain. Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de la Laguna, Tenerife, La Laguna, 38206, Spain. Leibniz-Institut für Sonnenphysik (KIS), Schöneckstr. 6, Freiburg, 79104, Germany. Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, Granada, 18008, Spain. Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, Ondřejov, 25165, Czech Republic. Institute for Solar Physics, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, Stockholm, 10691, Sweden. Astronomical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Tatranská Lomnica, 05960, Slovakia. Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen´s University Belfast, Northern Ireland, Belfast, BT7 1NN, United Kingdom. European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, Noordwijk, 2201 AZ, Netherlands. Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, Penteli, 15236, Greece. Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas (LPP), École Polytechnique, Ip Paris, Sorbonne Université, Cnrs, Observatoire de Paris, Université Psl, Université Paris Saclay, Paris, France. Rosseland Centre for Solar Physics, University of Oslo, PO Box 1029, Blindern, Oslo, 0315, Norway. Lesia, Observatoire de Paris, Université Psl, Sorbonne Université, Université Paris Cité, Cnrs, 5 place Jules Janssen, Meudon, 92195, France. University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland (SUPSI), Polo Universitario Lugano, Via Serafino Balestra 16, Lugano, 6900, Switzerland. Gepi, Observatoire de Paris, Psl Research University, Cnrs, Meudon, 92195, France. Inaf Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, Trieste, 34143, Italy. Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, Potsdam, 14482, Germany. Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências Do Espaço, Universidade de Coimbra, Ogauc, Rua do Observatório s/n, Coimbra, 3040-004, Portugal. PMOD/WRC, Dorfstrasse 33, Davos Dorf, 7260, Switzerland. ETH-Zurich, Hönggerberg Campus, Hit Building, Zürich, Switzerland. University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland (HEIG-VD), 1, route de Cheseaux, Yverdon-les-Bains, 1401, Switzerland. Department of Electrical Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 4860 Vicuña Mackenna, Santiago, 7820436, Chile. National Solar Observatory (NSO), 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, 80303, CO, United States. Irsol – Istituto Ricerche Solari Aldo e Cele Daccò, Università della Svizzera Italiana (USI), Locarno, 6605, Switzerland. Euler Institute, Università della Svizzera Italiana (USI), Lugano, 6900, Switzerland. Ucl Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, RH5 6NT, United Kingdom. Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ukkel, 1180, Belgium. University of Wrocław, Centre of Scientific Excellence – Solar and Stellar Activity, Kopernika 11, Wrocław, 51-622, Poland. Astronomical Institute, University of Wrocław, ul. Kopernika 11, Wrocław, 51-622, Poland. Physics Department, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, 00133, Italy. Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden, 2333 CA, Netherlands. Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kačićeva 26, Zagreb, 10000, Croatia. IGAM/Institute of Physics, Karl-Franzens University Graz, Universitätsplatz 5/II, Graz, Austria. Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung (MPS), Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, Göttingen, 37077, Germany. Centre for Advanced Instrumentation, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom. Department of Physics, University of Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci 31C, Rende, 87036, Italy. Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, PO Box 1029, Blindern, Oslo, 0315, Norway. Grantecan S.A., C/Vía Láctea S/n (IAC), Tenerife, La Laguna, 38205, Spain. Inaf Osservatorio Astrofísico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, Firenze, 50125, Italy. Inaf – Fund. Galileo Galilei, Rambla Jose Ana Fernández Perez 7, Breña Baja (La Palma), Canary Islands, 38712, Spain. Inaf – Istituto di Astrofísica e Planetologia Spaziali, Roma, 00133, Italy. Université Paul Sabatier, Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Irap, Cnrs, Cnes, 14 ave. E. Belin, Toulouse, 31400, France. Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L3 5RF, United Kingdom. Armagh Observatory & Planetarium, College Hill, , N. Ireland, Armagh, BT61 9DG, United Kingdom. Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Center (SP2RC), School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, S3 7RH, United Kingdom. Elte Eötvös Loránd University, Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Department of Astronomy, Budapest, Hungary. Hungarian Solar Physics Foundation (HSPF), Petöfi tér 3., Gyula, 5700, Hungary. Inaf Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, Monte Porzio Catone, 00078, Italy. Université Côte d´Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d´Azur, Cnrs, Laboratoire Lagrange, France. Citeuc – Center for Earth and Space Research of the University of Coimbra, Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory, Department of Mathematics of the University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Subdireccion General de Internacionalización de la Ciencia e Innovación, Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Paseo de la Castellana 162, planta 16 impares, Madrid, 28046, Spain. Supa School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, United Kingdom. Cnrs IRL2009 – Themis, Via Lactea s/n, , Canary Islands, La Laguna, 38205, Spain. Max Iv Laboratory, Lund University, Box 188, Lund, 221 00, Sweden. CNR-Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo E. Fermi 6, Firenze, 50125, Italy. Inaf – Osservatorio Astrofísico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, Catania, 95123, Italy. Utrecht University, Department of Physics and Astronomy Postbus 80000, Utrecht, 3508TA, Netherlands. Department of Optics, Palacky University Olomouc, 17. Listopadu 12, Olomouc, Czech Republic. University of Geneva, 7, route de Drize, Carouge, 1227, Switzerland. Department of Computer Science, Aalto University, PO Box 15400, Aalto, 00076, Finland. Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Florence, Italy. Univ Lyon, Univ Lyon1, Ens de Lyon, Cnrs, Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon UMR5574, Saint-Genis-Laval, 69230, France. Faculty of Communication Sciences, Università della Svizzera Italiana, Lugano, Switzerland. University of California Observatories, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, 95064, CA, United States. Inaf Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, Napoli, 80131, Italy. Expert Analytics As, Møllergata 8, Oslo, 0179, Norway. University of l´Aquila, Dept. of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Via Vetoio 48, Coppito, 67100, Italy. Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Dept. of Mathematics, Ku Leuven, Leuven, 3001, Belgium. Institute of Physics, University of Maria Curie-Skłodowska, Pl. M. Curie-Skłodowska 5, Lublin, 20-031, Poland. Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Bolshoy Boulevard 30, bld. 1, Moscow, 121205, Russian Federation. Thüringer Landessternwarte, Sternwarte 5, Tautenburg, 07778, Germany. Inaf – Istituto di Astrofísica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via Alfonso Corti 12, Milano, 20133, Italy. Centro de Rádio Astronomia e Astrofísica Mackenzie, Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo, Brazil. School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Gyeonggi, Yongin, 446-701, South Korea. Asi, Italian Space Agency, Via del Politecnico snc, Rome, 00133, Italy. Institute for Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Eth Zurich, Switzerland. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, , Tokyo, Mitaka, 181-8588, Japan. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Spain. The Key Laboratory on Adaptive Optics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, 610209, China. Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, 610209, China. Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Ettore Majorana, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, Catania, 95123, Italy.
Abstract: The European Solar Telescope (EST) is a project aimed at studying the magnetic connectivity of the solar atmosphere, from the deep photosphere to the upper chromosphere. Its design combines the knowledge and expertise gathered by the European solar physics com- munity during the construction and operation of state-of-the-art solar telescopes operating in visible and near-infrared wavelengths: the Swedish 1m Solar Telescope, the German Vacuum Tower Telescope and GREGOR, the French Tylescope Hyliographique pour l?Ytude du Magnytisme et des Instabilitys Solaires, and the Dutch Open Telescope. With its 4.2 m primary mirror and an open con- figuration, EST will become the most powerful European ground-based facility to study the Sun in the coming decades in the visible and near-infrared bands. EST uses the most innovative technological advances: the first adaptive secondary mirror ever used in a solar telescope, a complex multi-conjugate adaptive optics with deformable mirrors that form part of the optical design in a natural way, a polarimetrically compensated telescope design that eliminates the complex temporal variation and wavelength dependence of the telescope Mueller matrix, and an instrument suite containing several (etalon-based) tunable imaging spectropolarimeters and several integral field unit spectropolarimeters. This publication summarises some fundamental science questions that can be addressed with the telescope, together with a complete description of its major subsystems.
Journal/Review: ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS
Volume: 666 Pages from: A21-1 to: A21-36
More Information: C.Q.N. was supported by the EST Project Office, funded by the Canary Islands Government (file SD 17/01) under a direct grant awarded to the IAC on ground of public interest. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme under Grant Agreements No 739500 (PRE-EST) and 653982 (GREST). This project was supported by the European Commission’s FP7 Capacities Programme under Grant Agreements No 212482 (EST Design Study) and No. 312495 (SOLARNET). It was also supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme under Grant Agreement No. 824135 (SOLARNET). This work has been partially funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through project RTI2018-096886-B-C51, including a percentage from FEDER funds, and through the Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa grant SEV-2017-0709 awarded to the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía in the period 2018-2022. The EST preparatory phase was supported by a grant for research infrastructures of national importance from the Swedish Research Council (registration number 2017-00625). J.J. was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic through the EST-CZ project (LM2018095). C.K. acknowledges funding received from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 895955. Queen’s University Belfast acknowledges support from the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) under grant No. ST/V003739/1. This work was supported by Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) through the research grants [UID/FIS/04434/2019], UIDB/04434/2020, UIDP/04434/2020, UIDB/00611/2020 and UIDP/00611/2020. This work was partly funded by a grant of the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P 32958-N. J.C.R., C.J.D.B. and A.P.Y. gratefully acknowledge financial support from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (SUNMAG, grant agreement 759548). J.A. was supported by Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES). G.A., M.C., L.F., V.H., A.O. and L.R.V.V acknowledge support by the Research Council of Norway through its Centres of Excellence scheme, project number 262622. L.B., M.B., R.R. acknowledge State Secretariat for Education, Research, and Innovation (SERI), Canton Ticino and Swiss National Science Foundation (grants 200020_184952, 200021_175997, CRSII5_180238) for the financial support. R. Brajša and D. Sudar acknowledge the support by the Croatian Science Foundation under project 7549 ‘Millimeter and submillimeter observations of the solar chromosphere with ALMA’. The NSO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. The work of A.B. was partially supported by the programme ‘Excellence Initiative – Research University’ for years 2020–2026 for University of Wrocław, project no. BPIDUB.4610.15.2021.KP.B. E.S.C. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) through the Spanish State Research Agency, under Severo Ochoa Centres of Excellence Programme 2020-2023 (CEX2019-000920-S). L.F. and N.L. would like to acknowledge support from UK Research and Innovation Science and Technology Facilities Council grants ST/L006200/1 and ST/T000422/1. J.F. acknowledges visiting facilities at Rosseland Centre for Solar Physics (University of Oslo), in 2019. P. Gömöry, A.K. and J.R. were supported by the Science Grant Agency project VEGA 2/0048/20. I. Kontogiannis is supported by KO 6283/2-1 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). C.J.N. is thankful to the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), for support received through grant ST/T00021X/1, and ESA, for support as an ESA Research Fellow. K.P. was supported by the Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Fund (grants no. NKFI K-128384 and TKP2021-NKTA-64). P.J.A. Simões acknowledges support from CNPq (contract 307612/2019-8). J.T.B. acknowledges the funding received from the European Research Council (ERC) under de European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (ERC Advanced Grant Agreement No. 742265). M.V. is supported by VE 1112/1-1 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). L.Q.Z. acknowledges that this work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11727805, No. 1210030348). F.Z. acknowledges that this work was supported by the Italian MIUR-PRIN grant 2017APKP7T and by the Università degli Studi di Catania (Piano per la Ricerca Università di Catania 2020-2022, Linea di intervento 2).KeyWords: telescopes – Sun; magnetic fields – Sun; chromosphere – instrumentation; adaptive optics – instrumentation; polarimetersDOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/202243867