Measurement of the order parameter and its spatial fluctuations across Bose-Einstein condensation
Authors: Wolswijk L., Mordini C., Farolfi A., Trypogeorgos D., Dalfovo F., Zenesini A., Ferrari G., Lamporesi G.
Autors Affiliation: INO-CNR BEC Center and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, 38123 Povo, Italy
Abstract: We investigate the strong out-of-equilibrium dynamics occurring when a harmonically trapped ultracold bosonic gas is evaporatively cooled across the Bose-Einstein condensation transition. By imaging the cloud after free expansion, we study how the cooling rate affects the timescales for the growth of the condensate order parameter and the relaxation dynamics of its spatial fluctuations. We find evidence of a delay on the condensate formation related to the collisional properties and a universal condensate growth following the cooling rate. Finally, we measure an exponential relaxation of the spatial fluctuations of the order parameter that also shows a universal scaling. Notably, the scaling for the condensate growth and for the relaxation of its fluctuations follow different power laws.
Journal/Review: PHYSICAL REVIEW A
Volume: 105 Pages from: 033316-1 to: 033316-10
KeyWords: Phase transitions, Critical phenomena, Bose-Einstein condensationDOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.105.033316