Electrochemical Optical Actuators: Controlling the Light through Ions
Authors: Morichetti F., Zanotto S., Blancato A., Berkemeier F., Castro MM., Buchheit A., Wiemhofer HD., Schmitz G., Klitis C., Sorel M., Melloni A.
Autors Affiliation: Politecn Milan, Dipartimento Elettron Informaz & Bioingn, Milan, Italy; Univ Florence, CNR, Ist Nazl Ottica, I-50121 Florence, Italy; Univ Florence, LENS, I-50121 Florence, Italy; Univ Munster, Inst Mat Phys, Munster, Germany; Univ Munster, Inst Inorgan & Analyt Chem, Munster, Germany; Univ Stuttgart, Inst Mat Sci, Stuttgart, Germany; Univ Glasgow, Sch Engn, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland
Abstract: The insertion of mobile ions and coupled changes of electron concentration are exploited to induce a non-volatile and reversible change of the optical properties of mixed ionic and electronic conductors (MIECs). The physical mechanisms responsible for the change of the real and imaginary part of the MIECs’ refractive index upon ion-intercalation are extensively investigated in the visible and near-IR range. Applications of the proposed electrochemically driven optical actuators are discussed for the manipulation of the light in an optical chip.
KeyWords: tunable photonic devices; optical waveguides; silicon photonics; optical actuators; mixed ionic electronic conductors; metasurfaces