Multimodal fiber optic based spectroscopic approach for the grading and staging of bladder tumors
Authors: Anand S., Cicchi R., Crisci A., Nesi G., Carini M., Pavone F.S.
Autors Affiliation: National Institute of Optics, National Research Council (INO-CNR), Via Nello Carrara, 1, Sesto Fiorentino, 50019, Italy; European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University of Florence, Via Nello Carrara, 1, Sesto Fiorentino, 50019, Italy; Division of Urology, Department of Surgical and Medical Critical Area, University of Florence, Florence, I-50100, Italy; Department of Physics, University of Florence, Via Giovanni Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino, 50019, Italy
Abstract: The current diagnostic standard for detection of bladder tumors is standard white light cystoscopy. The major concerns related to cystoscopy include its invasive, causes discomfort to the patient and also misses flat tumors such as carcinoma in situ (CIS). Grading and staging of tumors would help the clinician for selecting the proper treatment thereby preventing recurrence and progression of bladder tumors. In this context, we propose to use different optical techniques based on fluorescence, diffuse reflectance and Raman spectroscopy to obtain complementary information for the grading and staging of bladder tumors. Spectroscopic techniques offer the advantage of being minimally invasive, real time and quantitative. We used fluorescence excitation at two distinct wavelengths, 378 and 445 nm excitation. Considerable differences were observed in the wavelength range between 520 and 650 nm of the emission spectra. Raman spectroscopy yields biochemical spectral fingerprints typical of normal and tumor tissues. The advantage of Raman spectroscopy is that it provides spectral signatures which are unique for each molecule. Additionally, reflectance spectroscopy could provide information related to tissue vasculature and scattering phenomena which is found to vary between normal and tumor tissues.
KeyWords: Emission spectroscopy; Endoscopy; Fluorescence; Grading; Histology; Raman spectroscopy; Reflection; Tissue; Tumors, Bladder tumor; Current diagnostics; Diffuse reflectance; Fluorescence excitation; Reflectance spectroscopy; Scattering phenomenon; Spectral fingerprints; Spectroscopic technique, DiagnosisDOI: 10000000000