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Research Focus
In this section they are shown:
  1. the possibilities of thesis and doctorates available near the research's structures of INOA,

  2. the development in the activity research at INOA also through advances of jobs in escape on reviews or presentations to Conferences.

  3. This section introduces the part of mainly innovative excellence and of the activity of search carried out near laboratories INOA.

Progress in Research

Special events

Doctorate and/or Thesis available

Colloquium

2017
        News date 03/11/2017Real-time observation of vortex dynamics in superfluids
                The presence of quantized vortices represents one of the most spectacular evidences of superfluidity. A new real-time imaging technique was developed at the ultracold gases laboratory of the BEC Center in Trento. Such a technique allowed to study the 3D dynamics of single vortex filaments in a Bose-Einstein condensate, observing both the orbital motion around the center and the gyroscopic motion about the BEC symmetry axis [ PRA 96, 053605 (2017) - Editors’ Suggestion, Synopsis in Physics ]. Furthermore, new and unexpected three-dimensional interaction mechanisms between vortices, at the basis of quantum turbulence, have been identified [ PRX 7, 021031 (2017) ].
        
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                News by Lamporesi Giacomo, for other information write to: giacomo.lamporesi@ino.it
        
 News date 10/10/2017New article on Science Advances
                This works was born thanks to the tight collaboration between INO and University of Texas at Austin. The aim of the research is to study, characterize and use novel Quantum Cascade Laser sources. These new sources exploit non linear processes ongoing inside the laser active medium in order to generate Far-IR (i.e. THz) coherent radiation. Possible applications of these radiation range from the biomedical field to homeland security, from global pollution monitoring to food quality control. Thanks to the innovation of our research, these new kind of sources will be working at room temperature. will be easy to transport and will therefore be easy to use for 'on field' applications.
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                News by Consolino Luigi, for other information write to: luigi.consolino@ino.it
        
 News date 04/10/2017Editors' Suggestion in Physical Review Letters
                The Article "Optimal Measurements for Simultaneous Quantum Estimation of Multiple Phases" by Luca Pezze' et al. has been selected as Editor's Suggestion in Physical Review Letters. @ The article derives the conditions for the simultaneous quantum estimation of multiple parameters, a desired step forward for the design of future quantum imaging and metrology devices.
        
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                News by Pezzè Luca, for other information write to: luca.pezze@ino.it
        
 News date 01/10/2017Discovering a new visual area in the human brain
                
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                News by Greco Vincenzo, for other information write to: vincenzo.greco@ino.it
        
 News date 28/08/2017Light Sail accelerators: polarization matters
                In the Light Sail concept, a thin reflecting object is accelerated as a moving mirror by the pressure of electromagnetic radiation. While laser-driven light sails have been recently in press highlights as an ambitious approach to send probes up to the nearest star at three light years from Earth, on the miniaturized scale of nanometric sails and femtosecond lasers they are being investigated as a compact accelerator. It was proposed already a few years ago that the use of pulses with circular polarization is optimal because the detrimental heating of the sail is minimized. Using the ASTRA-GEMINI laser at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, a team including UK and Italian scientists has demonstrated much higher ion energies for circular, than for linear polarization, which is a major step forward applications in warm dense matter production and in medicine (e.g. ion beam therapy, isotope production). The team included the CNR/INO scientists Andrea Sgattoni, who performed massively parallel 3D computer simulations of the experiment, and Andrea Macchi, who supported the theoretical interpretation and was amongst the original proposers of the circular polarization option.
        
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                News by Macchi Andrea, for other information write to: andrea.macchi@ino.it
        
 News date 26/07/2017Leonardo Sacconi won the Outstanding Achievement Award from European Society of Cardiology
                With this award the ESC (European Society of Cardiology) Council for Basic Cardiovascular Science (CBCS) honours two researchers with outstanding accomplishments in basic research and have recently established themselves as independent investigators.
        
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                News by Sacconi Leonardo, for other information write to: leonardo.sacconi@ino.it
        
 News date 04/07/2017Experimental study published on Nature Physics: ferromagnetic behaviour observed in an ultracold repulsive Fermi gas
                In a paper recently published on Nature Physics, we show that strong repulsive interactions alone are sufficient to temporarily stabilize ferromagnetic correlations in an ultracold Fermi gas. We study the collective spin dynamics of an ultracold lithium spin mixture, artificially engineered in a fully ferromagnetic state, obtained by spatially segregating oppositely-oriented spins into two adjacent reservoirs. In particular, we reveal a substantial increase of the magnetic susceptibility of the gas while approaching the critical value of the atomic interaction strength. We directly show that above the critical interaction a spin up-down domain wall can persist for a finite amount of time, indicating the metastability of the ferromagnetic state.
The experimental study has been carried out by the INO-CNR researchers in the ultracold lithium laboratory in Sesto Fiorentino led by Giacomo Roati, in collaboration with the theoretical researchers Alessio Recati from the INO-CNR BEC Center in Trento and Tilman Enss from the University of Heidelberg.

G. Valtolina, F. Scazza, A. Amico, A. Burchianti, A. Recati, T. Enss, M. Inguscio, M. Zaccanti & G. Roati, “Exploring the ferromagnetic behaviour of a repulsive Fermi gas through spin dynamics”, Nature Phys. 13, 704-709 (2017).
        
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                News by Roati Giacomo, for other information write to: giacomo.roati@ino.it
        
 News date 20/06/2017.
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                News by Catani Jacopo, for other information write to: jacopo.catani@ino.it
        
 News date 24/04/2017EPS Plasma Physics PhD thesis award to Luca Fedeli
                Luca Fedeli is one of the recipients of tone of the three 2017 PhD Research Awards of the European Physical Society division of Plasma Physics. The thesis "High Field Plasmonics" has been also published by Springer. Luca has worked as a CNR/INO associate under the supervision of Andrea Macchi.
        
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                News by Macchi Andrea, for other information write to: andrea.macchi@ino.it
        
 News date 10/04/2017ERC Advanced Grant to Stefan Wabnitz
                Prof. Stefan Wabnitz, University of Brescia and INO associate, has been awarded a 2016 ERC Advanced Grant for the project “STEMS–Spatiotemporal multimode complex optical systems”. STEMS will explore aspects and consequences of the new effect of self-cleaning of spatial beams in multimode nonlinear optical fibres, recently discovered by prof. Wabnitz and his collaborators at the Universities of Limoges and Dijon. This new effect will be at the basis of a technological breakthrough, which allows for the delivery of high energy laser pulses by multimode fibers, with a much higher beam quality than what it has been possible until now. Among the main applications of this technology, medical diagnostics and the restoration of cultural heritage.
        
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                News by De Rosa Maurizio, for other information write to: maurizio.derosa@ino.it
        
 News date 02/04/2017A long-standing puzzling problem of quantum thermodynamics is now clarified.
                In a recent paper of Luca Salasnich (University of Padova and CNR-INO, Italy) published in the Physical Review Letters it has been finally solved a long-standing puzzling problem of thermodynamics: to find non-universal corrections to the universal equation of state of two-dimensional (2D) weakly-interacting Bose gas. In 2D systems, where particles move on a flat planar geometry, effects of quantum mechanics are strongly enhanced and, as shown in the paper, to determine the non-universal equation of state it is required the highly nontrivial regularization of divergent quantum fluctuations. The obtained results are very interesting for scientists working in different fields of physics: thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, quantum field theory and effective field theory, superfluidity and superconductivity. The 2D non-universal equation of state is particularly useful for the community of ultracold atom physics because non-universal thermodynamical properties could be experimentally observed with bosonic gases made of alkali-metal atoms and confined in quasi-2D optical traps. Quite remarkably, all the results are analytical and their derivation is based on beyond-mean-field quantum field theory within the modern and elegant formalism of functional integration.
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                News by Salasnich Luca, for other information write to: luca.salasnich@ino.it
        

2016
        News date 23/12/2016CNR Ion publication between the best 30 selected by OSA for the 2016
                The Optical Society of America editors reviewed more than 150 research summaries from scientists from around the world. They selected for publication 30 stories that they felt most clearly communicated breakthroughs of interest to the optics community. Between the Cnr Ino Article of quantum optics about photons with no area. Uno authors Marco Bellini, Luca Costanzo, Daniele Pellegrino and Alessandro Zavatta.
        
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 22/12/2016The dispute between Boltzmann and Gibbs entropy featured on the official Elsevier Physics Twitter channel: https://twitter.com/ElsevierPhysics/status/811122455679012864
                The paper "On the dispute between Boltzmann and Gibbs entropy" featured on the official Elsevier Physics Twitter channel: https://twitter.com/ElsevierPhysics/status/811122455679012864
        Elsevier Physics Twitter channel
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                News by Franzosi Roberto, for other information write to: roberto.franzosi@ino.it
        
 News date 15/11/2016Marco Bellini was elected as a Fellow Member of The Optical Society (OSA)
                Marco Bellini was elected as a Fellow Member of The Optical Society (OSA) at the Society’s October 2016 Board of Directors meeting. Fellow membership in OSA is limited to no more than ten percent of the membership and is reserved for members who have served with distinction in the advancement of optics and photonics. Marco Bellini is being honored specifically for pioneering contributions in ultrafast, highly nonlinear, and quantum optics. In particular, for his seminal experiments on the coherence of supercontinuum and high-order harmonics and for innovative methods of quantum light state engineering.
        
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 24/10/2016"Best talk award" at IQIS 2016 to Manuel Gessner
                Manuel Gessner, postdoctoral researcher at QSTAR (Firenze) and associate of INO, received the "Best talk award" (prize value 500 €) at the 9th Italian Quantum Information Science Conference Rome, 20-23 September 2016 for his talk on "Entanglement detection for discrete, continuous and hybrid variables". The research was published earlier this year with reference Phys. Rev. A 94, 020101(R) (2016).
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                News by Gessner Manuel, for other information write to: manuel.gessner@ino.it
        
 News date 01/09/2016Tito Arecchi honorary editor of CHAOS Journal
                CHAOS journal announced the creation of the new position of Honorary Editor. This new position will be awarded to Tito Arecchi as a pioneer in Nonlinear Science for his outstanding research and longstanding support of CHAOS.
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                News by Farini Alessandro, for other information write to: alessandro.farini@ino.it
        
 News date 28/07/2016Camilla Parmeggiani has been selected among the finalists of the "European Young Chemist Award 2016 (EYCA2016)"
                Camilla Parmeggiani has been selected among the finalists of the "European Young Chemist Award (EYCA2016)". The final step of the competition is planned to be held on 14 September 2016 at the 6th European Chemistry Congress in Seville.
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                News by Parmeggiani Camilla, for other information write to: camilla.parmeggiani@ino.it
        
 News date 27/07/2016Theoretical paper published on PNAS
                The paper "Witnessing Entanglement without Entanglement Witness Operators" by Luca Pezze', Yan li, Weidong Li and Augusto Smerzi has been accepted fir publication in PNAS (Proceeding of the National Academy of Science USA). This theoretical work relates entanglement to the statistical speed measuring how quickly nearby states become distinguishable under the action of an arbitrary many-body Hamiltonian. The unveiled connection between the statistical speed and entanglement provides a unifying framework that can shed new light on quantum information science and quantum critical phenomena, and opens toward quantum-enhanced metrology in nonlinear systems. Reference: arXiv:1512.06213
                
                News by Pezzè Luca, for other information write to: luca.pezze@ino.it
        
 News date 26/07/2016Zero-point energy of ultracold atoms
                In the review paper of Luca Salasnich (INO-CNR and Padova Univ.) and Flavio Toigo, recently published in the high-impact-factor journal "Physics Reports", it is shown that quantum fluctuations (i.e. the zero-point energy of the quantum field which describes the system) play a fundamental role in ultracold and dilute atomic gases. These atomic gases are currently under experimental investigation at INO-CNR and LENS reaching temperatures near the absolute zero. The equation of state of these ultracold gases is quite different with respect to the familiar mean-field equation due to quantum fluctuations which become increasingly important by reducing the temperature. Reference: L. Salasnich and F. Toigo, Phys. Rep. 640, 1 (2016).
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                News by Salasnich Luca, for other information write to: luca.salasnich@ino.it
        
 News date 26/07/2016Synthesis of 1D Polymer/Zeolite Nanocomposites under High
                In this work, the high pressure (50000−100000 atmosphere) synthesis of two archetypal, 1D polymers poly-acetylene and poly-carbon monoxide has been performed in the 1D channel system of a pure silica zeolite, with the channel diameter in the sub-nanometric scale. The resulting poly-acetylene/zeolite and the poly-carbon monoxide/zeolite nanocomposites are good candidates as highly directional semiconductors and high energy density materials, respectively. The synthesis was performed in diamond anvil cells, starting from dense acetylene and carbon monoxide, confined in the zeolite, and the nanocomposites were recovered at ambient conditions. Materials characterization was performed by means of IR spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements. The study has been performed by an international team, which includes CNR-INO, LENS and CNRS, and is coordinated by M. Santoro (INO/LENS) and J. Haines (CNRS).
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                News by Santoro Mario, for other information write to: mario.santoro@ino.it
        
 News date 24/07/2016Augusto Smerzi is “Mercator Fellow”, award by the German Research Foundation (DFG)
                 The German Research Foundation (DFG) has awarded Augusto Smerzi, Director of Research at INO-CNR, as “Mercator Fellow”. The fellowship enable intensive, long-term project-based collaboration between researchers from both domestic and foreign institutions.
                
                News by Smerzi Augusto, for other information write to: augusto.smerzi@ino.it
        
 News date 20/07/2016Headline on Physics World: Inverse Faraday Effect driven by Radiation Friction
                The "Physics World" magazine put in the headlines the paper by A. Macchi (CNR/INO) with Tatyana V. Liseykina e Sergey V. Propruzhenko on the possibility to generate multi-Gigagauss magnetic fields in superintense laser-plasma interactions exploiting the absorption of electromagnetic angular momentum due to the effect of radiation friction.
        Headline on physicsworld.com
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                News by Macchi Andrea, for other information write to: andrea.macchi@ino.it
        
 News date 16/06/2016Camilla Parmeggiani was awarded with the "Organic Chemistry for the environment, energy and nanoscience" research prize.
                The Organic Chemistry Division of the Italian Chemical Society has awarded for the 2016 Camilla Parmeggiani with the "Organic Chemistry for the environment, energy and nanoscience" research Prize reserved for young high-profile candidates.
                
                News by Parmeggiani Camilla, for other information write to: camilla.parmeggiani@ino.it
        
 News date 09/06/2016Smaller, faster, cheaper detection of radiocarbon - Article review in the Search & Discovery section of Physics Today
                A compact spectroscopic system can measure radioactive carbon dioxide concentrations as low as five parts per quadrillion.
        SCAR experimental setup
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                News by Mazzotti Davide, for other information write to: davide.mazzotti@ino.it
        
 News date 20/05/2016Laser-Driven Particle Acceleration Towards Radiobiology and Medicine
                This book by Antonio Giulietti deals with the new method of laser-driven acceleration for application to radiation biophysics and medicine. It provides multidisciplinary contributions from world leading scientist in order to assess the state of the art of innovative tools for radiation biology research and medical applications of ionizing radiation. The book contains insightful contributions on highly topical aspects of spatio-temporal radiation biophysics, evolving over several orders of magnitude, typically from femtosecond and sub-micrometer scales. Particular attention is devoted to the emerging technology of laser-driven particle accelerators and their application to spatio-temporal radiation biology and medical physics, customization of non-conventional and selective radiotherapy and optimized radioprotection protocols.
        
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 11/05/2016Spectroscopic detection of radiocarbon dioxide at parts-per-quadrillion sensitivity
                A compact and simple spectroscopic apparatus, based on saturated-absorption cavity ring-down (SCAR), has approached the ultimate sensitivity of accelerator mass spectrometry. Radiocarbon dioxide concentrations down to a few parts per quadrillion have been measured. These results, published in Optica journal, pave the way to a paradigm change in radiocarbon measurement, with a number of significant applications in areas such as environment, nuclear security, pharmacology, and cultural heritage.
        SCAR experimental setup
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                News by Mazzotti Davide, for other information write to: davide.mazzotti@ino.it
        
 News date 19/04/2016A compact all-optical post-acceleration device for laser-driven protons
                High intensity laser-solid interactions produce huge, transient charge separation fields which accelerate ions and also generate giant electromagnetic (EM) pulses with picosecond duration, in the THz region. These effects have been combined to obtain a compact all-optical post-acceleration device. By redirecting along an helical conductor an unipolar EM pulse, the latter is synchronized with the proton beam leading to dynamic focusing and enhanced acceleration. The concept, which opens new opportunities for the development and application of laser-driven ion acceleration, has been demonstrated experimentally at the Institut fuer Laser-und Plasmaphysik of the Heinrich Heine University of Duesseldorf (Germany) by an international team leaded by S. Kar from the Queen's University of Belfast (UK) and involving the CNR/INO scientists A. Macchi and G. Cantono. Results have been published on Nature Communications.
        Design of the compact all-optical device for the post-acceleration of protons (patent by S. Kar)
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                News by Macchi Andrea, for other information write to: andrea.macchi@ino.it
        
 News date 04/04/2016Remote monitoring of building oscillation modes by means of real-time Mid Infrared Digital Holography
                Recently published on Nature Scientific Reports a new technique, based on Mid Infrared Digital Holography, for remote monitoring the oscillation modes of large engineering structures. The technique developed in collaboration between INO-CNR of Florence and the Earth Sciences Department of Florence University, is able to record, in real-time, the building micrometric oscillations and to determine their amplitude and frequency. These measurements are crucial to evaluate seismic risk and the effects of underground works in cities. The technique, currently under patent evaluation, constitues a breakthrough advance with respect to the existing techniques allowing reduced measurement times and reduced employment of human resources.
        
                
                News by Pugliese Eugenio, for other information write to: eugenio.pugliese@ino.it
        
 News date 02/02/2016Granted US Patent for viewing through the flames with the Digital Holography IR
                The USA Patent protects a system for reconstructing the image of an object hidden by smoke and flames. The system consists of a lensless, off-axis digital holographic device employing a IR laser source. The object beam is enlarged and then irradiates the object. The reference beam is enlarged and then interferes with the radiation scattered by the object so as to create a hologram of the object. The system comprises an infrared detector to record the hologram and a processing unit to reconstruct numerically the image of the object. Differently from known thermographic techniques, the holographic system, working in a lensless configuration, allows to reconstruct the image of the object avoiding the sensor saturation due to the flame radiation.
                
                News by Pugliese Eugenio, for other information write to: eugenio.pugliese@ino.it
        
 News date 28/01/2016Optimal Phase-Control Strategy for Damped-Driven Duffing Oscillators
                Phase control of chaotic dynamical systems is a well known technique allowing conversion from chaos to periodic behavior and viceversa. This tehcnique has been implemented at INO Firenze and tested, during the last two decades, on several dynamical systems. The novelty contained in this paper, published on Physical Review Letters, is related to the fact that the optimal control strategy is obtained when applied to the underlying potential. From the experimental point of view, a new indicator able to discriminate, in real time, chaotic and periodic solutions has been introduced. The experimental results have been compared with numerical simulations based on advanced computational techniques. This work is a collaboration between INO Firenze, Ospedale San Raffaele di Milano and Universidade Federal da Paraíba(João Pessoa, Brazil).
        
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                News by Pugliese Eugenio, for other information write to: eugenio.pugliese@ino.it
        
 News date 22/01/2016
                
        
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                News by Ricciardi Iolanda, for other information write to: iolanda.ricciardi@ino.it
        
 News date 15/01/2016A photon with no area
                Contrary to common intuition, we show that a single photon of extremely short duration, which thus possesses a wide range of different color hues, can strongly interact with very monochromatic atoms. The interaction provokes a deep modulation of the photon temporal shape, with positive and negative lobes that result in a null area. However, since almost no absorption takes place, energy is conserved and a single, heavily deformed, photon is still present at the end.
The ability to reliably produce and detect such zero-area single photon pulses is not only intriguing from a fundamental point of view, but it also offers exciting new opportunities for quantum information technologies.
        
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                News by Bellini Marco, for other information write to: marco.bellini@ino.it
        
 News date 07/01/2016Surfin' the Surface Wave: a Plasmonic Electron Accelerator
                Laser light can be caught by a grating engraved on a metal, via the excitation of an electron wave known as a surface plasmon. This latter is a bulding block of plasmonics, where the related effect of electromagnetic field confinement and enhancement is exploited to develop sub-micrometric electronic devices. Extension of plasmonics at very high fields would pave the way to novel applications, but such nonlinear regime is still largely unexplored and even the basic properties of high amplitude surface plasmons are almost unknown. Because of their characteristics, surface plasmons have also the potential to accelerate electrons, much like surfers on sea waves. In this paper, Fedeli et al. demonstrate acceleration to high energies from surface plasmons driven by superintense femtosecond laser pulses. Besides the possible applications as an ultrashort electron source, the study gives direct evidence for relativistic surface plasmons and therefore is a step forward high field plasmonics. The experiment has been performed at the SLIC facility in CEA Saclay (France) within a LASERLAB Europe-supported collaboration coordinated by INO scientist Andrea Macchi and CEA scientist Tiberio Ceccotti, with the fundamental contribution of young researchers associated to INO including Luca Fedeli, Giada Cantono and Andrea Sgattoni.
        
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                News by Macchi Andrea, for other information write to: andrea.macchi@ino.it
        

2015
        News date 04/12/2015Far South, Far Infrared
                An article summarising the INO reasearch activity performed at the Antarctic Station of Concordia at Dome C was published on the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society and obtained the cover image of the September issue.
The article presents an unique dataset of spectral measurements of the downwelling atmospheric thermal emission, which covers for the first time the longwave region of the far infrared with systematic acquisitions taken almost continuously for many years.
The measurements taken under different atmospheric conditions and for many years, can improve greatly our knowledge of the radiative properties of water vapor and clouds, and therefore the accuracy of climate models.
        BAMS cover, Volume 96 Issue 9 (September 2015)
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                News by Palchetti Luca, for other information write to: luca.palchetti@ino.it
        
 News date 06/11/2015Article on Nature Communications: Laboratory measurement of resistivity of brown dwarf-like warm dense matter
                Published on Nature Communications an experimental study on the resistivity of brown dwarf-like astrophysical matter. The sample, irradiated by ultraintense laser light, is heated rapidly due to the ohmic effect of return electron currents established in the sample to balance the intense fast electron current activated by the laser irradiation. Polarization of fluorescence X-ray emission from the bulk of the sample is measured to infer the anisotropy of electron speed distribution. Comparison with theory shows a higher resistivity than expected from current models of resistivity of warm dense matter typical of brown dwarf. The experiment was carried out at the Central Laser Facility of the RAL (UK) by an international team of researchers, including four researchers from the ILIL Lab of the INO-Pisa.
        
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                News by Gizzi Leonida Antonio, for other information write to: leonidaantonio.gizzi@ino.it
        
 News date 30/09/2015Observation of chiral edge states with neutral fermions in synthetic Hall ribbons
                Results published on Science.
Observation of Edge states, a hallmark of quantum Hall effect, has recently been reported in atomic sistems, where a "synthetic" spatial extra-dimension has been imposed into a quantum degenerate gas of Yb atoms.
        
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                News by Catani Jacopo, for other information write to: jacopo.catani@ino.it
        
 News date 24/09/2015At the 101° Sif Congress many awards for INO CNR
                Many awards for INO CNR during the 101 Sif Congress: Giovanni Arena, INO Napoli, Eleonora Lucioni INO-Lens, Luca Labate INO-Pisa e Elisabetta Baldanzi INO-Firenze. The Enrico Fermi award to Diederik Wiersma INO-Lens.
        
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 15/09/2015Experimental Observation of “Noise Assisted Transport” in optical cavities networks
                The study of the mechanisms driving the energy transport through interacting systems plays a crucial role both to improve the process of transferring information across complex networks and to explain the high efficiency of the excitation transfer through a network of chromophores in photosynthetic systems. Theoretical models have predicted that noise can play a positive role in assisting energy transport (“Noise Assisted Transport”) and a maximum value of the transport efficiency is expected in correspondence of a particular value of noise.
At CNR-INO of Sesto Fiorentino, an optical simulator of complex networks, that mimics a network of chromophores in photosynthetic systems, has been realized, where the coherent propagation of excitons in a N-chromophores network is simulated by the propagation of photons in a network of N coupled optical cavities. The setup is entirely based on fiber-optic components at 1550 nm and the cavities are fiber Bragg grating (FBG) resonators.
This simulator has allowed the first experimental observation of the bell-like behavior of the transmission efficiency as a function of noise. This work points towards the possibility of designing optimized structures for transport assisted by noise that might also be used for future and more efficient solar energy technologies.
This result has been recently published in Physical Review Letters and the manuscript has been selected as “Editors’ Suggestion”.
        Experimental Observation of “Noise Assisted Transport” (NAT)
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                News by Viciani Silvia, for other information write to: silvia.viciani@ino.it
        
 News date 14/09/2015Real-time THz digital holography
                Here at INO-CNR of Firenze it has been realized a THz holographic imaging system to get real-time coherent images of dynamic scenes.
The system makes use of a QCL and a microbolometric sensor to obtain phase and amplitude images of THz irradiated targets, both in transmission and in reflection.
Coherent imaging at these wavelengths usually requires long acquisition and processing time which prevents real-time monitoring of moving targets.
The significant reduction of environmental vibration sensitivity and the larger field of view offered by THz radiation employment in holographic imaging, conversely, allow to obtain coherent images of real world dynamic scenes, in real-time, increasing significantly the potential of imaging at these wavelengths.
The employment of THz radiation has a great appeal in various application. The capability of photons at these frequencies to be transmitted through opaque materials in the visible range (tissues, paper, plastics, …) has, indeed, clear potential, for example, in the field of non-destructive testing. The strong absorbance of THz radiation in water, moreover, is well suited for its employment in the biomedical field, as for cancerous tissues investigation.
The possibility to record real-time dynamic scenes may represent an important boost for the use of imaging in this spectral range in various applicative areas, for example, in industrial quality control, in cultural heritage analysis and in histological investigation of biological samples.
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                News by Locatelli Massimiliano, for other information write to: massimiliano.locatelli@ino.it
        
 News date 25/08/2015Generation of entanglement in quantum parametric oscillators using phase control
                The control of quantum correlation and entanglement in systems in contact with environment plays an important role in quantum computing. We have considered a system of two coupled oscillators in contact with a common heat bath and with a time dependent oscillation frequency. The possibility to control the entanglement of the oscillators by means of an external sinusoidal perturbation applied to the oscillation frequency has been theoretically explored. We have demonstrated that the oscillators become entangled exactly in the region where the classical counterpart is unstable. The classical system has been electronically implemented and the experimental results have been compared with the theoretical simulations. Therefore, we can control the entanglement swapping from stable to unstable regions by adjusting amplitude and phase of our external perturbation.
Our results have the intriguing peculiarity of manipulating quantum information operating on a classical system.
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                News by Pugliese Eugenio, for other information write to: eugenio.pugliese@ino.it
        
 News date 20/05/2015Nature Communications article
                'Volcano seismicity and ground deformation unveil the gravity-driven magma discharge dynamics of a volcanic eruption' published on Nature Communications. Pasquale Poggi INO CNR is one of the authors.
        
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 11/05/2015Giacomo Insero awarded for the best poster at the Spring School on Cold Atoms and Molecules & Applications in Metrology CAMAM 2015
                Giacomo Insero awarded for the best poster titled "High Resolution Spectrosopy On a Cold Molecular Beam" at the Spring School on Cold Atoms and Molecules & Applications in Metrology CAMAM 2015, Tunisia 16 - 21 March 2015.
        CAMAM 2015
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 23/04/2015Paper on Nature Communications: Generation of electron–positron plasmas in the laboratory
                "Electron–positron pair plasma—a state of matter with a complete symmetry between negatively and positively charged particles—are found in many astrophysical object. Here, the authors use high-power laser to create an ion-free electron–positron plasma in the laboratory." This is the “flash summary” that introduces the reader to the paper entitled “Generation of neutral and high-density electron–positron pair plasmas in the laboratory” by G.Sarri et al., just published in Nature Communications (doi:10.1038/ncomms7747). The experiment uses an effective laser-wakefield acceleration scheme to generate a high charge, high energy electron bunch that is then partially converted in positrons via electromagnetic cascade. The outcoming bunch is tuned to be a globally neutral plasma consisting of matter and antimatter, with unique features which are believed to be associated with high energy astrophysical phenomena. The experiment was carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) by a wide collaboration including the National Institute of Optics and coordinated by the Queen’s University of Belfast.
        
                
                News by Gizzi Leonida Antonio, for other information write to: leonidaantonio.gizzi@ino.it
        
 News date 03/02/2015Role of filamentation of fast electrons in the heating of matter by ultraintense laser irradiation
                Published on Physics of Plasmas a paper describing a research carried out by a team of the ILIL Group at INO-Pisa in collaboration with researchers the UK and the US. The study, based on an experiment carried out at the Vulcan PW Laser Facility (RAL, UK) was focused on the propagation of intense currents of fast electrons in solid matter and the role of beam instabilities in enhanced heating.The investigation, carried out in the framework of the EU HiPER programme and also funded by the Italian MIUR programme, is relevant for the physics of advanced ignition of Inertial Fusion and for the generation of high energy density matter typical of large planetary objects and stars.
        
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                News by Gizzi Leonida Antonio, for other information write to: leonidaantonio.gizzi@ino.it
        
 News date 03/01/2015The ten biggest hits of Italian science in 2014
                Schrödinger's cat reproduced in the laboratory is among the ten biggest hits of Italian science in 2014. The experiment was realized by Ino Cnr and Lens. The study, led by Marco Bellini and Alessandro Zavatta, with the support of Korean and Australian colleagues of the University of Seoul and Queensland, is described in 'Nature Photonics'.
        l
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 01/01/2015Paolo De Natale new OSA Fellow
                Paolo De Natale direttore Ino-Cnr has been elected as new OSA Fellow Member. Individual OSA Members were elected for their significant contributions to the advancement of optics and photonics.
        Optical Society of America
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 01/01/2015Nature Photonics - Frequency Comb Cascade
                Frequency combs based on quantum cascade lasers presented in Nature Photnics presents the point of view of Ino-Cnr director Paolo De Natale.
        IQCLSW 2014
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        

2014
        News date 21/09/2014Fisher information and entanglement of non-Gaussian spin states
                Cari colleghi, vi segnalo un nostro recente lavoro apparso su SCIENCE 345, 424 (2014) Abstract. Entanglement is the key quantum resource for improving measurement sensitivity beyond classical limits. However, the production of entanglement in mesoscopic atomic systems has been limited to squeezed states, described by Gaussian statistics. Here, we report on the creation and characterization of non-Gaussian many-body entangled states. We develop a general method to extract the Fisher information, which reveals that the quantum dynamics of a classically unstable system creates quantum states that are not spin squeezed but nevertheless entangled. The extracted Fisher information quantifies metrologically useful entanglement, which we confirm by Bayesian phase estimation with sub–shot-noise sensitivity. These methods are scalable to large particle numbers and applicable directly to other quantum systems.
                
                News by Smerzi Augusto, for other information write to: augusto.smerzi@ino.it
        
 News date 03/09/2014Beetles shine a light on Cambridge University scientists' to make brighter whites
                Extra-bright paper, paints and computer screens could soon be on the way, thanks to a new discovery inspired by beetles. Researchers at Cambridge University’s Cavendish Laboratory have found that the scales on the obscure Cyphochilus beetle are able to scatter light better than anything else in nature. The phenomenon has been likened to a painter who needs to whiten a wall with a very small quantity of paint. This efficiency is particularly important for insects that fly, as it makes them lighter and more manoeuvrable.
        
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                News by Burresi Matteo, for other information write to: SIR00390@ino.it
        
 News date 01/07/2014A hybrid between classical and quantum light
                Researchers of the National Institute of Optic of the National Research Council in Florence, Marco Bellini and Alessandro Zavatta, realized for the first time in the laboratory a new state of the light in which two light pulses are inextricably linked, the optical equivalent of the paradox known as' Schrödinger's cat '. The research, published in the Nature Photonics cover in JJuly, will allow a better understanding of the boundary between classical and quantum physics, and opens to a future communication network and computer performance.
        Nature Photonics Cover July 2014
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 08/04/2014Molding the diffusion of light by engineering disorder
                How would the appearance of a cloud change if one were to put some order into the position of water droplets? In this study we considered a more practical system made of tiny (nanometer-scale) holes in a glass-like sheet whose positions can be controlled at will. When these holes are disorderly placed, like droplets in clouds, light bounces around, spreading. We found though that it is possible to control light propagation by tuning this disorder over certain extent: from more transparent, thus allowing light to rapidly escape, to more opaque, retaining light for long times. We observed that by controlling disorder a severe slow down of the propagation of light, to the point of a complete halt, occurs. The possibility to mold the light scattering, even to trap it, can be useful for a variety of applications, from biosensing to the next generation of all-optical calculators.
(Conley et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 143901 (2014))
        
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                News by Burresi Matteo, for other information write to: SIR00390@ino.it
        
 News date 11/02/2014First-time observation of quantum behavior of fermions with large spin
                This behavior, revealed for the first time, has been observed by employing an ultracold sample of Yb atoms, cooled at temperatures close to the absolute zero (100 nK), where the number of internal states (spin) could be artificially controlled and increased up to six, rather than being limited by Nature to 2 (as in case of electrons). Under this light, the system has no direct analogue in "natural" systems (eg. solid state systems, where the number of electronic spin components is 2, or in nuclear systems, where the nucleons consituents (quarks) show 3 different natural "colours").@ Among the results, it has been shown that such an increase of spin components in fermions (one of the two main classes of particles in which the consituents of the Universe can be divided into) leads to a "less fermionc" behavior, pushing the particles towards a "bosonic" one.@ This results have a transversal relevance, and show fundamental interest (long standing solid state theories, such as the Luttinger model for interacting electrons, can be tested), providing at the same time valuable experimental information not yet satisfactorily described by present theories.@ The versatility of this system allows the realization of an effective "quantum simulator", capable of validating predictions of forecoming theories belonging to a wealth of research areas, ranging from solid state to subnuclear physics.@ These results have been obtained at LENS laboratories from a collaboration among INO-CNR and University of Firenze (Physics Dept.), and recently appeared on Nature Physics (“A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin”, doi:10.1038/nphys2878).
        
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                News by Catani Jacopo, for other information write to: jacopo.catani@ino.it
        
 News date 07/02/2014Optics and Photonics News - INO book reviews
                P. Maddaloni, M. Bellini e P. De Natale book on Optics and Photonics News
        
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 07/02/2014First experimental realization of the Zenone effect to confine the dynamics of a quantum system
                First experiment on Zenone effects to confine the dynamics of a quantum system
        
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 27/01/2014LabTalk 'Laser-plasma acceleration of ions: a collective challenge' on Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion
                A short non-technical insight is given about the research presented in the paper "Advanced strategies for ion acceleration using high-power lasers" [A Macchi et al 2013 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 55 124020], from an invited plenary talk at the 2013 EPS Conference on Plasma Physics.
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                News by Macchi Andrea, for other information write to: andrea.macchi@ino.it
        
 News date 14/01/2014OSA selects a Ino research between the best peer-reviewd articles of the 2013
                On Optics & Photonics News the Ino research on holography to see between smog and fire between the best of the 2013.
        
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 08/01/2014Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy and Sensing
                Giangluca Galiardi e Hans-Peter Loock Editors
The book reviews the dramatic recent advances in the use of optical resonators for high sensitivity and high resolution molecular spectroscopy as well as for chemical, mechanical and physical sensing. It encompasses a variety of cavities including those made of two or more mirrors, optical fiber loops, fiber gratings and spherical cavities. The book focuses on novel techniques and their applications. Each chapter is written by an expert and/or pioneer in the field. These experts also provide the theoretical background in optics and molecular physics where needed. Examples of recent breakthroughs include the use of frequency combs (Nobel prize 2005) for cavity enhanced sensing and spectroscopy, the use of novel cavity materials and geometries, the development of optical heterodyne detection techniques combined to active frequency-locking schemes. These methods allow the use and interrogation of optical resonators with a variety of coherent light sources for trace gas detection and sensing of strain, temperature and pressure.
        Book cover
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        

2013
        News date 05/12/2013Massimo Inguscio DSFTM CNR Director winner of the Herbert Walther Award 2014
                Massimo Inguscio won the Herbert Walther Award 2014 assigned by the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (DPG). Inguscio, Director of the DSFTM CNR and Professor at the University of Florence, received the prize for his research in the precision spectroscopy field. Before him received the prize Alain Aspect , Marlan O. Scully , Serge Haroche e David J. Wineland Nobel Prrizes for Physics 2012.
        
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 04/11/2013NEW VIEWS: Ultrafast coherent nanoscopy
                The dramatic advances of nanotechnology experienced in recent years enabled us to fabricate optical nanostructures or nano-antennas that greatly enhance the conversion of localised electromagnetic energy into radiation and vice versa. Nano-antennas offer the required improvements in terms of bandwidth, interaction strength and resolution for combining ultrafast spectroscopy, nano-optics and quantum optics to fundamentally push forward the possibility of the coherent optical access on individual nanostructures or even molecules above cryogenic temperatures, where dephasing processes typically occur at very short time scales. In this context, we discuss recent progress in the theoretical description of light-matter interaction at the nanoscale and related experimental findings. Moreover, we present concrete examples in support of our vision and propose a series of experiments that aim at exploring novel promising regimes of optical coherence and quantum optics in advanced spectroscopy. We envisage extensions to ultrafast and nonlinear phenomena, especially in the direction of multidimensional nanoscopy.
        
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                News by Agio Mario, for other information write to: mario.agio@ino.it
        
 News date 29/10/2013Intense light caught by a grating: a step towards relativistic plasmonics
                When light impinges on a periodically grooved surface, it can be efficiently absorbed and confined in a thin layer as a surface wave. This is the building block of plasmonics and allows guiding and enhancement of electromagnetic fields on a sub-micrometric scale, which is the key to several applications. However, the latter have been limited so far to not very intense light in order to prevent damage of the shallow grating.@ In a recent experiment, by using femtosecond laser pulses short and "clean" enough to prevent early disruption of the grating, researchers have provided evidence of surface wave excitation by a laser pulse so intense that electrons oscillate with relativistic energy. The effect has been observed via an increase of the energy of the emitted protons, which in turn suggests to exploit the mechanism to develop more efficient ultrashort sources of radiation. The observations also call for a theory of nonlinear surface waves in the relativistic regime.@ The experiment was carried out at the SLIC facility of CEA Saclay in France by a collaboration of Italian, French and Czech scientists with the support of the LASERLAB European Network. The collaboration was coordinated by the CNR/INO scientist A. Macchi and has involved several other staff and postdoc scientists from the INO Pisa research unit, including F. Baffigi, L. A. Gizzi, L. Labate, and A. Sgattoni, also in the framework of the CNR ELI-Italy and MIUR FIR-SULDIS projects. Simulations for the experiment were performed on the FERMI supercomputer at CINECA (Bologna) with access provided via an European PRACE project also coordinated by A. Macchi. @ Ref.: T. Ceccotti et al, Evidence of resonant surface wave excitation in the relativistic regime through measurements of proton acceleration from grating targets, Physical Review Letters 111, 185001 (2013)
        
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                News by Macchi Andrea, for other information write to: andrea.macchi@ino.it
        
 News date 02/10/2013Laser-Based Measurements for Time and Frequency Domain Applications: A Handbook
                Based on the authors’ experimental work over the last 25 years, Laser-Based Measurements for Time and Frequency Domain Applications: A Handbook presents basic concepts, state-of-the-art applications, and future trends in optical, atomic, and molecular physics. It provides all the background information on the main kinds of laser sources and techniques, offers a detailed account of the most recent results obtained for time- and frequency-domain applications of lasers, and develops the theoretical framework necessary for understanding the experimental applications.
        
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 02/10/2013Defects creation in a BEC
                The Kibble-Zurek mechanism describes the defects creation in a system that crosses a second order phase transition.@ In aggreement with such a theory we directly observed the presence of solitons in a sodium BEC.
As expected the number of these defects follows a power-law with the cooling speed.
G. Lamporesi et al., Nature Physics, 9, 656-660 (2013)
See also:
News and Views by M. Zwierlein and cover page
        Expansion images of a sodium BEC. Higher cooling speeds across the transition lead to a larger number of defects (solitons)
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                News by Lamporesi Giacomo, for other information write to: giacomo.lamporesi@ino.it
        
 News date 05/09/2013Francesco Cappelli Arnat-Mills Award winner at HRMS 2013
                The Amat-Mills Award Committee of HRMS 2013 in Budapest, after a careful consideration of all nominations received, made the decision to give to Francesco Cappelli (Ino-Cnr researcher - supervisor Paolo De Natale) the 2013 Amat-Mills Awards for his outstanding experimental work in high-resolution molecular spectroscopy.
        
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 30/08/2013The Purcell factor of nanoresonators
                Advances in theoretical nano-optics provide new insights into how nanoscale modification of spontaneous emission can be realized.
        
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                News by Agio Mario, for other information write to: mario.agio@ino.it
        
 News date 11/05/2013Review article: \"Ion acceleration by superintense laser-plasma interaction\" on Reviews of Modern Physics
                Review article: "Ion acceleration by superintense laser-plasma interaction" by Andrea Macchi (CNR/INO) with Marco Borghesi, and Matteo Passoni: Reviews of Modern Physics 85, 751 (2013). Laser-plasma acceleration of ions has been making steady progress, with the ability now to generate ultrashort, multi-MeV ion bunches in extremely short distances. This article reviews the physics behind the ion acceleration and discusses the directions that this research field is taking.
        
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                News by Macchi Andrea, for other information write to: andrea.macchi@ino.it
        
 News date 07/03/2013HiPER ignition scheme based on shock wave
                HiPER punta sull’ignizione per shock. Il progetto di grande infrastruttura europea per la fusione laser HiPER si avvia alla conclusione della fase preparatoria con una conclusione importante per il futuro della ricerca europea in questo campo. Gli studi condotti a partire dal 2007 hanno portato alla individuazione di uno schema sul quale si baseranno i futuri esperimenti “full scale”. Lo schema prevede il cosiddetto irraggiamento diretto (direct drive) e lo schema di ignizione per onda d’urto (shock ignition). Gli studi condotti dai ricercatori partecipanti ad HiPER ha infatti dimostrato che, allo stato attuale delle conoscenze, questo schema risulta il più promettente per il potenziale guadagno energetico (energia da fusione/energia laser) e tecnicamente fattibile. Una rappresentazione schematica dello schema di ignizione per onda d’urto è presente nel nuovo video di presentazione del Progetto HiPER, disponibile ora anche in lingua italiana (vedi link)
        http://www.hiper-laser.org
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                News by Gizzi Leonida Antonio, for other information write to: leonidaantonio.gizzi@ino.it
        
 News date 05/03/2013A new technique developed by INO researchers allows for the first time to see through flames
                Digital holography in the IR range allows, thanks to the longer wavelenght compared to visible ones, allows to image moving human size objects. Moreover, this technique permits to see behind flames, since it does not require lenses in front of the thermal camera, and therefore the sensor does not get blinded by radiation emitted by fire.@ see also (e.g.) http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-21602952 and http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2285459/Holographic-camera-firefighters-flames.html
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                News by Pelagotti Anna, for other information write to: anna.pelagotti@ino.it
        
 News date 01/02/2013New textbook: "A Superintense Laser-Plasma Interaction Theory Primer"
                The continuous trend towards higher and higher laser intensities has opened the way to new physical regimes and advanced applications of laser-plasma interactions, thus stimulating novel connections with ultrafast optics, astrophysics, particle physics, and biomedical applications. This book is primarily oriented towards students and young researchers who need to acquire rapidly a basic knowledge of this active and rapidly changing research field. To this aim, the presentation is focused on a selection of basic models and inspiring examples, and includes topics which emerged recently such as ion acceleration, "relativistic engineering" and radiation friction. The contents are presented in a self-contained way assuming only a basic knowledge of classical electrodynamics, mechanics and relativistic dynamics at the undergraduate (Bachelor) level, without requiring any previous knowledge of plasma physics. Hence, the book may serve in several ways: as a compact textbook for lecture courses, as a short and accessible introduction for the newcomer, as a quick reference for the experienced researcher, and also as an introduction to some nonlinear mathematical methods through examples of their application to laser-plasma modeling.
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                News by Macchi Andrea, for other information write to: andrea.macchi@ino.it
        

2012
        News date 04/12/2012Optical Antennas
                This consistent and systematic review of recent advances in optical antenna theory and practice brings together leading experts in the fields of electrical engineering, nano-optics and nano-photonics, physical chemistry and nanofabrication. Fundamental concepts and functionalities relevant to optical antennas are explained, together with key principles for optical antenna modelling, design and characterisation. Recognising the tremendous potential of this technology, practical applications are also outlined. Presenting a clear translation of the concepts of radio antenna design, near-field optics and field-enhanced spectroscopy into optical antennas, this interdisciplinary book is an indispensable resource for researchers and graduate students in engineering, optics and photonics, physics and chemistry.
        Cover
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                News by Agio Mario, for other information write to: mario.agio@ino.it
        
 News date 13/11/2012An intense laser-driven magnetic fountain
                Superintense laser pulses interacting with dense matter may drive extremely large currents of high energy electrons which, in turn, generate strong quasi-static magnetic fields. Such magnetized relativistic plasmas have interest for the study of exotic astrophysical processes on a laboratory scale. By using an ultrafast proton beam technique an international research team has measured with high spatial and temporal resolution toroidal magnetic fields generated by electrons refluxing at both surfaces of a solid target ("fountain effect") interacting with the high-power VULCAN laser beam at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK. Magnetic field values up to 50 Megagauss have been estimated, implying that they play a role in the dynamics of the laser-generated plasma and in particular in the process of ion acceleration. Two CNR/INO scientists (C. A. Cecchetti and L. A. Gizzi) have participated to the experiment and the theorical interpretation has been supported by a simple model developed by another CNR/INO scientist (A. Macchi): see the preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/1202.0389 .
        
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                News by Macchi Andrea, for other information write to: andrea.macchi@ino.it
        
 News date 03/11/2012SAILING BEFORE THE LIGHT: PROGRESS TOWARDS A LASER ION ACCELERATOR
                Just as the wind boosts a sail, the pressure of light may accelerate a reflecting object. A few years after the invention of the laser, the idea of a rocket boosted by an Earth-based laser system was proposed for interstellar travel. With the recent advent of ultrapowerful laser systems the "Light Sail" concept, scaled down to sub-millimeter lengths and times of one millionth of millionth of a second, may yield acceleration values similar to those near the surface of a Black Hole and provide compact sources of high-energy ions for applications in technology and medicine. Using the VULCAN Petawatt (one thousand of billions of Watt power) laser at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) to irradiate sub-micrometric thin foils, a collaboration leaded by a group from The Queen's University of Belfast and including theoretical support from a CNR/INO scientist (A. Macchi) has given for the first time evidence of the typical scaling of the energy per nucleon versus the laser and target parameters that is typical of the Light Sail model. The scaling with the laser energy is the fastest obtained so far in experiments on laser-driven acceleration of ions, and together with the large number of accelerated ions it makes this approach quite promising for future developments.
        
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                News by Macchi Andrea, for other information write to: andrea.macchi@ino.it
        
 News date 17/09/2012PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIF INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF PHYSICS ON "LASER-PLASMA ACCELERATION", VOL. 179, SEPTEMBER 2012 (IOS PRESS)
                Impressive progress has been made in the field of laser-plasma acceleration in the last decade, with outstanding achievements from both experimental and theoretical viewpoints. Closely exploiting the development of ultra-intense, ultrashort pulse lasers, laser-plasma acceleration has developed rapidly, achieving accelerating gradients of the order of tens of GeV/m, and making the prospect of miniature accelerators a more realistic possibility. This book presents the lectures delivered at the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics and summer school: 'Laser-Plasma Acceleration' , held in Varenna, Italy, in June 2011. The school provided an opportunity for young scientists to experience the best from the worlds of laser-plasma and accelerator physics, with intensive training and hands-on opportunities related to key aspects of laser-plasma acceleration. Subjects covered include: the secrets of lasers; the power of numerical simulations; beam dynamics; and the elusive world of laboratory plasmas. The objective of the school was to establish a common knowledge base for the future laser-plasma accelerator community. These published proceedings aim to provide a wider community with a reference covering a wide range of topics, knowledge of which will be necessary to future research on laser-plasma acceleration. The book also provides references to selected existing literature for further reading.
        COVER OF THE PROCEEDINGS ON "LASER-PLASMA ACCELERATION"
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                News by Gizzi Leonida Antonio, for other information write to: leonidaantonio.gizzi@ino.it
        
 News date 06/09/2012The paper “All-optical microfluidic chips for reconfigurable dielectrophoretic trapping through SLM Light Induced Patterning” has been published on Lab on Chip journal.
                A new all-optical method for fabricating polymer microfluidic channels and for in-site reconfigurable and electrode-free DEP trapping by photorefractive effect
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                News by Miccio Lisa, for other information write to: lisa.miccio@ino.it
        
 News date 05/09/2012Phase-locking to a free-space terahertz comb for metrological-grade terahertz lasers
                Frequency comb synthesizers are important for metrology, but they have been difficult to use as frequency rulers in the terahertz region due to their low power. Consolino et al. phase-lock a quantum cascade laser to a free-space-propagating terahertz comb, demonstrating that they can overcome this limitation. The research published on Nature Communications doi:10.1038/ncomms2048
        Pettine di frequenze
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 04/09/2012Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser
                Development of a sophisticated experimental technique for measuring the linewidth intrinsic emission of laser sources with structure quantum cascade operating in the far infrared. The research of M. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio e P. De Natale published on Nature Photonics DOI: 10.1038/NPHOTON.2012.145
        Published on nature Photonics
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 27/08/2012Novel microscopy method offers sharper view of brain's neural network
                Because the light sheet illuminates the part of the sample directly in the same plane, only a single section of the target is imaged at a time. Raising and lowering the illumination plane, as well as rotating the sample, rapidly produces a series of two-dimensional sectional views known as “slices” that can yield a 3-D map of a whole organism or any of its organs/systems when the individual 2-D visual pieces are brought together.
One region that scientists have tried to survey in mice with LSM is the neural pathway, the billion-fold network of neurons that underlie the functioning of the brain. While the LSM method yields high-resolution views of tissue excised from mouse brains and fixed in position, whole brain samples scatter the emitted light and create background fluorescence that reduces contrast and blurs the perceived image. Obviously, this aberration makes it impossible to resolve and reconstruct the entire neuronal network with a high contrast. @To correct the problem, Pavone and his colleagues combined the advantages of light sheet illumination with confocal microscopy, an imaging method that uses a filter to remove photons that stray from the single plane of the thin sheet. @“We found that the combined system, which we call confocal light sheet microscopy or CLSM, filtered the scattered photons that were emitted and recovered the normally lost image contrast in real time without the need for multiple acquisitions or any post-processing of the acquired data,” Pavone says. “This allows us to obtain sharp image slices that can be easily reconstructed into a macroscopic view of whole organs or entire organisms with a resolution of a few microns and faster acquisition time.” @The images obtained with CLSM, Pavone says, are 100 percent sharper than those acquired with conventional LSM. @The researchers validated the background rejection capabilities of CLSM by showing that it results in significantly sharper images than conventional LSM microscopy and than a variation of LSM that requires redundant slices and post-processing to remove scattered light. CLSM proved superior to the other two methods when used to view three samples from mouse brains: the hippocampus, the cerebellum and the whole brain. The 3-D reconstruction ability of CLSM also was put to the test when the researchers used it to map the micron-scale neuroanatomy of mouse Purkinje cells (large neurons found in the cerebellum) and trace an entire brain’s neuronal projections (the finger-like ends of a neuron by which neurochemical signals are received from other nerves).
        
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 08/08/2012Recent paper published on Lab on a Chip selected as "Hot Articles"
                Selezionto dall'Editor di Lab-on-a-Chip tra gli “Hot Articles” l’articolo recentemente pubblicato sulle ricerche svolte presso INO - Napoli (offrendo inoltre la possibilità possibilità di accesso gratuito al lavoro per le prossime 4 settimane). M. Paturzo, A. Finizio, P. Memmolo, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli and P. Ferraro, "Microscopy imaging and quantitative phase contrast mapping in turbid microfluidic channels by digital holography," Lab Chip, 2012, 12 (17), 3073 - 3076. DOI:10.1039/C2LC40114B http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2012/LC/C2lc40114b Collegati al link per vedere il filmato e leggere la recensione: http://blogs.rsc.org/lc/category/hot-articles/
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                News by Paturzo Melania, for other information write to: melania.paturzo@ino.it
        
 News date 01/08/2012Measured the "shape" of the photon
                For the first time, researchers at the National Institute of Optics CNR, led by Marco Bellini and Alessandro Zavatta, have measured the optical complex temporal form of a single quantum of excitation. The study, being published in Physical Review Letters, allows to investigate in more detail the structure of quantum light and opens up new application possibilities in technologies that are increasingly safe, efficient and innovative
        A single photon detected by interference with a laser pulse of the same temporal form
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 27/07/2012Sandhoppers use skylight gradient to recognise sun
                Article "The skylight gradient of luminance helps sandhoppers in sun and moon identification" published in Journal of Experimental Biology selected for "Inside JEB" section
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                News by Mercatelli Luca, for other information write to: luca.mercatelli@ino.it
        
 News date 13/06/2012Quantum optics: The quantum picture of a detector
                Alessandro Zavatta and Marco Bellini published a News and Views article, entitled 'The quantum picture of a detector' in Nature Photonics 6, 350–351 (2012). Published online 29 May 2012.
        
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                News by Zavatta Alessandro, for other information write to: alessandro.zavatta@ino.it
        
 News date 06/06/2012Breaking and assembling liquid crystals
                Selected in the Wiley's "Materials Views" section the article: "Reversible Fragmentation and Self-Assembling of Nematic Liquid Crystal Droplets on Functionalized Pyroelectric Substrates".
        
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                News by Merola Francesco, for other information write to: francesco.merola@ino.it
        
 News date 01/06/2012ELETTRONI DI ALTA ENERGIA PRODOTTI CON TECNICHE LASER: STATO DELL’ARTE E POSSIBILI RISVOLTI CLINICI
                La quasi totalità delle terapie coinvolte usa il laser per gli effetti diretti della sua radiazione elettromegnetica sul tessuto biologico o per effetti immediatamente conseguenti alla deposizione di energia laser sui tessuti (riscaldamento, ablazione, cambiamento di stato, ecc). In questa pagine tratteremo invece di un impiego indiretto del laser. Si tratta di una particolare tecnica laser per la produzione di elettroni di alta energia che riteniamo possa avere applicazioni mediche.
        A schematic layout of a photoactivation with a table-top, laser-based electron source.
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                News by Gizzi Leonida Antonio, for other information write to: leonidaantonio.gizzi@ino.it
        
 News date 29/05/2012Lenses with micro-drops of liquid crystals
                Microscopic droplets of liquid crystals have been obtained for the first time by researchers iNO-CNR of Naples. Important applications in solar photovoltaics and photography thanks to the realization of microlenses with variable focal
        
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 02/05/2012Selected by Wiley for the Hot Topics section the published paper Reversible Fragmentation and Self-Assembling of Nematic Liquid Crystal Droplets on Functionalized Pyroelectric Substrates
                Selected by Wiley for the Hot Topics section the published paper "Reversible Fragmentation and Self-Assembling of Nematic Liquid Crystal Droplets on Functionalized Pyroelectric Substrates"
        
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                News by Merola Francesco, for other information write to: francesco.merola@ino.it
        
 News date 27/04/2012Paper about liquid crystal droplets manipulation published by Advanced Functional Materials
                The prestigious journal "Advanced Functional Materials" (impact factor 8.5), by Wiley&Sons, has published the full paper "Reversible fragmentation and self-assembling of nematic liquid crystal droplets on functionalized pyroelectric substrates", by Francesco Merola, Simonetta Grilli, Sara Coppola, Veronica Vespini, Sergio De Nicola, Pasquale Maddalena, Cosimo Carfagna and Pietro Ferraro, INO-Napoli.
        
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                News by Merola Francesco, for other information write to: francesco.merola@ino.it
        
 News date 26/03/2012Observation of a Weibel filamentation instability in a laser-produced plasma
                The electromagnetic instabilities in a plasma driven by an initial anisotropy in the distribution function, commonly known as Weibel instabilities, are believed to play a fundamental role for the generation of magnetic fields nearby remote astrophysical objects. The same processes may develop on enormously different spatial and temporal scales in a laboratory laser-produced plasma, which provides an excellent test bed for the uprising "laboratory astrophysics". A collaboration between research groups from UK, France and Germany with the contribution of a researcher from INO (A.Macchi) for the theoretical interpretation has provided experimental evidence of a filamentary Weibel instability, whose dynamics has been investigated with the proton probing technique with picosecond resolution. These results, of interest for the understanding of magnetic field generation in astrophysical jets, have been published on Physical Review Letters.
        K.Quinn et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 135001 (2012)
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                News by Macchi Andrea, for other information write to: andrea.macchi@ino.it
        
 News date 20/03/2012Spectrochimica Acta: Atomic Spectroscopy AWARD 2010
                The Paper "Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium in Laser- Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy: Beyond the McWhirter criterion.", by G. Cristoforetti, A. De Giacomo, M. Dell'Aglio, S. Legnaioli, E. Tognoni, V. Palleschi, N. Omenetto was selected as the most significant article published in 2010 by Spectrochimica Acta Part B(Elsevier).@ The paper pointed out the main criteria to be fulfilled to validate the LTE assumption in a laser plasma and concluded that the mere use of the McWhirter criterion should be discontinued.
        Cover of the issue of january of the journal Spectrochimica Acta Part B
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                News by Cristoforetti Gabriele, for other information write to: gabriele.cristoforetti@ino.it
        
 News date 08/03/2012Ultrasensitive radiocarbon detection
                The research "Molecular gas sensing below part-per-trillion: radiocarbon-dioxide optical detection" published in Physical Review Letters (I. Galli, S. Bartalini, S. Borri, P. Cancio, D. Mazzotti, P. De Natale, and G. Giusfredi, Physical Review Letters 107, 270802, 2011) is mentioned in the section of Nature News and Views (NATURE Vol . 482, February 16, 2012). The original article describes an innovative method to detect such low radiocarbon levels not seen until now, opening our eyes to new horizons of research.
        
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 21/02/2012OSA selects INO research image, as Image of the Week
                The image is taken from the paper "An automatic method for assembling a large synthetic aperture digital hologram" by A. Pelagotti, M. Paturzo, M. Locatelli, A. Geltrude, R. Meucci, A. Finizio, and P. Ferraro, recently published on Optics Express, Vol. 20, Issue 5, pp. 4830-4839 (2012) http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.004830. It demonstrates one of the possibilities offered by the large holograms obtained by automatically stitching the single holograms acquired, according to the algorithm described in the paper.
        Two different view points are reconstructed starting from a large stitched hologram
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                News by Pelagotti Anna, for other information write to: anna.pelagotti@ino.it
        
 News date 01/02/2012Fiber-optic pickup: the photonic guitar
                The work presented in the paper "Musical instrument pick-up based on a laser locked to an optical fiber resonator", recently published on Optics Express (Opt. Express, 19, 25, 25057-25065, 2011), has appeared in the News and Views of Nature Photonics (Vol. 6, Feb. 2012).
The original paper describes an acoustic pickup based on an FBG fiber optic resonator. A DFB laser is locked to the cavity using the Pound-Drever-Hall technique. The optical pickup is embedded into the musical instrument body. The audio information transported by the cavity reflected radiation is extracted from the servo correction signal.
The work has been developed in collaboration with the Loock Laser Laboratory, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada.
        
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                News by Avino Saverio, for other information write to: saverio.avino@ino.it
        
 News date 20/01/2012Science - Technical comments
                Response to Comment on “Probing the Ultimate Limit of Fiber-Optic Strain Sensing”
        
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        

2011
        News date 21/12/2011Perfectly adiabatic control of a quantum system
                Researchers at INO, together with colleagues from the University of Pisa and NEST at Scuola Normale have realized perfectly adiabatic - or "superadiabatic" - quantum control of atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate (published in Nature Physics on December 18th). The control of quantum states is extremely important im many technologies ranging from magnetic resonance imaging to quantum computing, and can be achieved in different ways. On the one hand, one aims to maximize the speed of the control in order to reduce the effects of decoherence due to coupling to the environment. In the paper published now it is shown, amongst other things, how one can reach the maximum speed for such control, also known as the "quantum speed limit". On the other hand, often one also requires a high level of robustness against variations or inaccuracies in the experimental parameters. That robustness can be achieved by adiabatic control, in which the quantum system always stays close to the lowest energy state. Perfect adiabaticity, however, has until now been believed to be possible only in the limit of infinitely slow control. A few years ago, it was suggested in a number of theoretical papers that there should be control protocols that allow perfectly adiabatic control in a finite (and even very short) time. Such protocols have now been calculated and experimentally realized in the laboratory. They could be of great interest in many areas of research and in technological applications.
        
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                News by Morsch Oliver, for other information write to: oliver.morsch@ino.it
        
 News date 13/12/2011Virtual Experiments by Pulse Heating Techniques: Cylindrical Tungsten Specimens
                The double issue of November-December of the International Journal of Thermophysics (Volume 32 - Year 2011 - pp 2716-2726) contains an article by Gian Carlo Bussolino titled:
Virtual Experiments by Pulse Heating Techniques: Cylindrical Tungsten Specimens
G. C. Bussolino (1), G. Annino (2), C. Ferrari (1) and F. Righini (3)
1) CNR Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Pisa, Italy
2) CNR Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Pisa, Italy
3) INRIM Istituto Nazionale Ricerca Metrologica, Torino, Italy
Rererence:
Int J Thermophysics (2011) 32:2716-2726
DOI 10.1007/s 10765-011-1098-4
This work was started by Gian Carlo Bussolino when working at the IPCF (Istituto Processi Chimico-Fisici - CNR), with Giuseppe Annino and Carlo Ferrari (now at the INO), in collaboration with Francesco Righini from the Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) in Torino (Turin).
It is a very specialized paper that demonstrates how to use a simulation software via a finite element method to evaluate the uncertainty of experimental results obtained with high precision levels. The experimental results are related to the former work of Gian Carlo Bussolino with Francesco Righini, when both were part of the Thermophysical Property Research Group of the Istituto Metrologia “G. Colonnetti” (IMGC – CNR), now INRIM (Istituto Nazionale Ricerca Metrologica). Pulse experiments are performed on electrical conductors taking the specimens from room temperature to their melting point (3690 K for tungsten) in less than 1 s with a current pulse. During the experiment various quantities are measured with micro-to-millisecond time resolution, computing then with high precision several thermophyisical properties (heat capacity, enthalpy, electrical resistivity, hemispherical total emissivity,…).
In more general terms this paper demonstrates the possibility of virtual pulse experiments in which the model replicates well the real experiment and modeling results very close to reality can be used to optimize the parameters of the real experiment. Gian Carlo Bussolino has acquired competence in this simulation tool that might also be used in other INO activities.
        Evolution with temperature of the simulated radial temperature profiles inside a tungsten specimen taken to temperatures above 3600 K in a pulse heating experiment of 750 ms duration.
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                News by Bussolino GianCarlo, for other information write to: giancarlo.bussolino@ino.it
        
 News date 05/12/2011Molecular gas sensing below parts per trillion: Radiocarbon-dioxide optical detection
                Made the first experimental apparatus capable of detecting optically the concentration of radiocarbon (14C) present in natural abundance in a sample of carbon dioxide gas. The work, carried out by researchers at the National Institute of Optics of the National Research Council (CNR-INO), at the European Laboratory for Nonlinear Spectroscopy (LENS), will be presented in the journal Physical Review Letters. This research shows the lowest concentration ever measured with laser spectroscopy techniques, a gas of molecules, demonstrating that it is possible to detect carbon dioxide at pressures over a million billion times lower than the atmospheric pressure.
        Carbon dioxide with carbon-14 has different vibrational energies
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 02/12/2011The micro-optical foundry, devoloped at the UOS of Naples, is among the most exciting peer-reviewed optics research, to have emerged over the past 12 months, appearing into the December Special Issue of Optics & Photonics News.
                The results concerning the fabrication of soft solid-like micro/nano-structures, by an innovative 3D lithography technique, have been included into the December Special Issue of Optics & Photonics News, which highlights the most exciting optics research over the past 12 months. Moreover, the after image of the Magazine is devoted to this activity.
        Luminescent "micro-glass"
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                News by Grilli Simonetta, for other information write to: simonetta.grilli@ino.it
        
 News date 03/11/2011High-efficiency zig-zag slab solid state laser
                An innovative diode-pumped Nd:YAG zig-zag slab laser has been developed in our lab. The present version has delivered 230 W (continuous wave) at a 41% conversion efficiency level.
This type of laser has a wide range of important applications: from long-baseline interferometric detectors of gravitational waves to high power industrial lasers and high energy multi-Joule elements of Inertial Fusion ignition drivers.
Preliminary experimental results on an early prototype have been published on the Journal of the European Optical Society ( see attached PDF document).
        
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                News by Lapucci Antonio, for other information write to: antonio.lapucci@ino.it
        
 News date 03/10/2011The article "3D lithography by rapid curing of the liquid instabilities at nanoscale" by S.Grilli et al., recently published on PNAS, has been selected among the highlights of Nature Materials
                The article "3D lithography by rapid curing of the liquid instabilities at nanoscale" by S.Grilli et al., recently published on PNAS, has been selected among the highlights of Nature Materials
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                News by Merola Francesco, for other information write to: francesco.merola@ino.it
        
 News date 02/10/2011Born in the INO-CNR Naples Unit an innovative 'foundry' of polymers
                The National Institute of Optics of CNR in the Naples Unit was able to solidify liquid polymer in various geometric shapes with a new lithographic technique. The research, which is a prelude to many industrial applications, was published on ​​the cover of 'Pnas'
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 15/09/2011CNR-INO article selected for the cover of the PNAS ( Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA) journal
                The paper "3D lithography by rapid curing of the liquid instabilities at nanoscale" by Grilli et al. PNAS vol. 108 no. 37 15106-15111, has been selected for the cover of the PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA) journal.
        
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                News by Coppola Sara, for other information write to: SIR00264@ino.it
        
 News date 08/09/2011Optics nano-foundry: 3D lithography by rapid curing of the liquid instabilities at nanoscale
                First published on the web on "PNAS" journal (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1110676108 and selected as recent highlights in the Physics section the paper on the 3D lithography. The work presents a new method useful for rapid curing of the liquid instabilities at the nanoscale. The fabrication of many solid microstructures exploitable in electronics and photonics is demonstrated, thus leading to a new concept in 3D lithography. The applicability of specific structures as optical tweezers by Bessel beams and as novel remotely excitable quantum dots–embedded WGM microresonators are presented.
        Beads-on-a-string
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                News by Coppola Sara, for other information write to: SIR00264@ino.it
        
 News date 02/09/2011Self-assembling of multi-jets by pyro-electrohydrodynamic effect for high throughput liquid nanodrops transfer.
                First published on the web on "Lab on Chip Journal" (IF 6.26) as Advanced Article DOI: 10.1039/C1LC20472F the paper on the Self-assembling of multi-jets for high throughput liquid nanodrops transfer. Destabilization of liquid film by electro-hydro-dynamics (EHD) pressure is achieved through the pyroelectric effect on a polar dielectric crystal. We show that by destabilizing the liquid film, periodical self-assembled multi-jets are obtained. The multi-jets operate simultaneously and could be exploited to dispense liquids with nanolitre drops. Such multiple self-assembled liquid jets have significant potential applicability for high-throughput liquid transfer by this novel pyro-EHD ink-jet approach. Since the method avoids the use of nozzles and electrodes, it is especially suitable for highly viscous liquids. We present and discuss the new multi-jet process and the results obtained with a liquid polymer (PDMS).
        Lab on Chip Journal
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                News by Vespini Veronica, for other information write to: veronica.vespini@ino.it
        
 News date 30/08/2011Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF): collimation of fast electrons for plasma ignition
                A paper has recently been published on Physical Review Letters [F. Pérez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 065004 (2011)] reporting on a recent experiment aimed at studying the fast (relativistic) electron beam propagation through a compressed plasma. One of the most promising approaches to the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) relies on a laser-produced high-current, relativistic electron beam to deliver the required energy to a pre-compressed plasma and trigger its ignition. This approach, called “fast ignition”, was proposed in 1994 [M. Tabak et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626 (1994)]. One of the main obstacles to this approach is the need of an energy deposition into a very small region, which requires a very collimated electron beam, whose collimation was also not so much affected by the propagation inside the compressed plasma. The reported experiment lead to the identification of a well defined regime suitable for this approach. The experiment was carried out at the Central Laser Facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK), in the framework of the preparatory phase of the EU project of large scale infrastructure HiPER (High Power laser Energy Research facility). Research teams from a variety of EU countries have been involved in the experiment proposal, design and experimental phase; among them, a team of researchers from the Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory (ILIL, http://ilil.ino.it) of the INO section in Pisa.
As shown in the figure (taken from the published paper), an ICF-like compressed plasma was created by radially compressing an ah-hoc cylindrical target by laser ablation using four laser beams focused on its surface. Using a further laser beam, a relativistic electron beam was produced, whose propagation occurred through the compressed plasma, along the direction of the cylinder axis. The propagation of this beam was studied in different conditions, looking at the size of the beam at the exit of the cylinder by advanced X-ray imaging techniques.The experimental data were compared to numerical simulations obtained by advanced numerical codes. As it came out, self-generated magnetic fields can lead, in well defined plasma density and temperature conditions, to a guiding of the electron beam through the compressed plasma.
Contacts: Luca Labate (luca.labate@ino.it), Leonida A. Gizzi (la.gizzi@ino.it)
        
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                News by Labate Luca, for other information write to: luca.labate@ino.it
        
 News date 03/08/2011Pyroelectric Adaptive Nanodispenser (PYRANA) microrobot for liquid delivery on a target
                First published on the web on "Lab on Chip Journal" (IF 6.26) as Advanced Article DOI: 10.1039/C1LC20326F the paper on the PYRoelectric-Adaptive-Nanodispenser(PYRANA). Manipulation of micro-sized objects in lab-on-a-chip and microfluidic environments is essential for different experiments and procedures ranging from chemical to biological applications and for experimental biotechnologies. For example polymeric particles, useful as targets for encapsulating or for being covered by drug vaccines, can be manipulated and controlled with the aim of releasing them to specific sites. Here we show a novel ElectroHydroDynamic tool able to control and manipulate dielectric micro-targets by a touch-less approach. This approach allows one to manipulate liquids and nano-particles simultaneously for specific delivery applications (i.e. decoration and coating). Thus a sort of EHD micro-robot is proposed. This flexible tool provides a new and powerful way to operate various tasks as demonstrated by the experiments reported here
        Lab-on Chip Journal
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                News by Coppola Sara, for other information write to: SIR00264@ino.it
        
 News date 03/08/2011 INO going again to perform measurements at the Solar Furnace in Odeillo (France)
                For the second time, two researchers of the Solar Collector Group of INO will perform a measurement campaign on materials for solar energy exploitation at the MegaWatt Solar Furnace of the PROMES-CNRS Laboratory, in the French Pyrenees.
        
                
                News by Sani Elisa, for other information write to: elisa.sani@ino.it
        
 News date 17/05/2011CNR-INO Paper among the Top 10 papers from the SPIE Digital Library
                The Optical Engineering paper "Large Aperture Telescope for Advanced Lidar Systems" by Simonetti, Zuccaro Marchi, Gambicorti, Bratina, Mazzinghi has been reported among the top 10 downloaded in all the techological areas from SPIE Conference Proceedings and SPIE Journal papers.
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                News by Zuccaro Marchi Alessandro, for other information write to: alessandro.zuccaro@ino.it
        
 News date 05/05/2011PHYSICS OF LASER-FUSION: ENERGY DEPOSITION IN COMPRESSED MATTER.
                Following a major experimental campaign at the Vulcan laser of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, a team of researchers of several European countries participating in the HiPER programme, including staff from CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (Pisa) has delivered a first set of results on the generation of dense plasma with parameters relevant to the physics of the fast ignition scheme of Inertial Confinement Fusion. The results were published in two articles recently appeared [B. Vauzour et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 043108 (2011), L. Volpe et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 012704 (2011)] on Physics of Plasmas, one of the reference Journals for the plasma physics community. With the US National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory entering its crucial phase, the expected laboratory demonstration of laser-driven fusion is generating an intense activity world-wide to develop the next phase of exploitation of laser fusion for energy applications. In view of this, a major effort is being dedicated to the development of suitable ignition schemes to increase the thermonuclear gain of laser fusion from the value of 10-20 expected from the present NIF schemes, to the value of >100 needed for industrial exploitation of laser fusion energy. In the fast ignition scheme, a larger quantity of nuclear fuel is compressed to pre-ignition conditions using a moderate laser energy. A high intensity laser pulse, focused on the target at the moment of maximum compression, generates a massive production of energetic electrons that propagate in the compressed material where they release energy. This process acts as a spark that ignites the nuclear fusion reactions that is then expected to burn the entire compressed pellet. In Europe, the High Power Laser Energy Research Facility (HiPER) is facing these issues promoting a coordinated approach to R&D, numerical modeling and dedicated experimental campaign at European and international large laser facilities. The HiPER experimental campaign on fast ignition relevant conditions was designed to investigate energy deposition of large currents of fast electron beams inside a compressed material. The fast electron currents generated in these conditions are well beyond the Alfven limit and the description of their propagation in compressed matter is poorly understood. The experimental data obtained in our experimental campaign are the first obtained in an European laser installation and among the first available world wide. In the experiment, a set of four long laser pulses were used to symmetrically irradiate a cylindrical target to obtain a moderate, but significant compression. At the moment of maximum compression, a short, intense laser pulse is focused on the axis of the cylinder to generate fast electrons that propagate in the compressed material. A range of diagnostics, including proton radiography, X-ray imaging and spectroscopy and optical scattering measurements were used to assess the compression phase and the fast electron propagation phase. The papers recently appeared on Physics of Plasmas are dedicated to the characterization of the compression phase carried out using the most advanced plasma diagnostic techniques including proton and X-ray radiography. Radiography is exploited to reconstruct the temporal evolution of the compression phase. Substantial agreement of experimental results with numerical hydrodynamic modeling demonstrates that a successful compression was indeed obtained in the experiment. These results show that the conditions required for fast electron transport studies relevant to ICF Fast Ignition studies were indeed achieved in the experiment.
        Irradiation scheme for laser compression of a cylindrical target
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                News by Gizzi Leonida Antonio, for other information write to: leonidaantonio.gizzi@ino.it
        
 News date 27/03/2011The paper: “Fibre-top atomic force microscope probe with optical near-field detection capabilities” Has been selected by Journal of Microscopy as Hot Topic and earned the front cover of the issue of April 2011
                In this paper we showed the capability to develop a hybrid AFM/SNOM device suitable for simultaneous measurements of atomic force and optical tunneling. This system is extremely compact, doesn’t need any alignment and is suitable to operate in critical environments. Our results suggest that fibre-top technology can be used for the development of a new generation of hybrid probes.
        Journal of Microscopy April 2011
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                News by Baschieri Paolo, for other information write to: paolo.baschieri@ino.it
        
 News date 09/02/2011Frequency Comb Pushes Limit of Fiber-Optic Strain Sensing
                The work presented in the paper "Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing", recently published on Science (Gagliardi et al. Science 330, 1081–1084, 2010), has appeared in the "scattering news" section of Optics and Photonics News (OPN-OSA, February 2011).
        OPN
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                News by Avino Saverio, for other information write to: saverio.avino@ino.it
        
 News date 28/01/2011MAGNETIC SELF-COLLIMATION OF RELATIVISTIC, LASER-PRODUCED FAST ELECTRON BEAMS
                Published on Physical Review ST, Accelerators and Beams the results of an experimental study on ultra-intense laser-solid interactions entitled “Role of resistivity gradient in laser-driven ion acceleration” by L.A. Gizzi et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 14, 011301 (2011)”. It was predicted that, when a fast electron beam with some angular spread is normally incident on a resistivity gradient, magnetic field generation can occur that can inhibit beam propagation [A. R. Bell et al., Phys. Rev. E 58, 2471 (1998)]. This effect can have consequences on the laser-driven ion acceleration. In the experiment reported here, we compare ion emission from laser irradiated coated and uncoated metal foils and we show that the ion beam from the coated target has a much smaller angular spread. Detailed hybrid numerical simulations confirm that the inhibition of fast electron transport through the resistivity gradient may explain the observed effect.
        Proton beam image after irradiation of uncoated (left) and dielectric rear-coated (right) 5.7 µm thick Ti target under the same irradiation conditions.
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                News by Gizzi Leonida Antonio, for other information write to: leonidaantonio.gizzi@ino.it
        
 News date 25/01/2011Springer book on \"Lectures on Ultrafast Intense Laser Science 1\”
                Ultrashort and intense laser technologies have developed rapidly, and recent investigations of atoms, molecules and solids in such ultrashort intense laser fields have revealed the existence of a wide range of new phenomena. The lectures included in the volume "Lectures on Ultrafast Intense Laser Science 1” cover a wide range of subjects in ultrafast intense laser science such as fundamentals of atomic and molecular dynamics in intense laser fields, experimental and theoretical approaches to controlling molecular behavior and chemical reaction in intense laser fields, high-order harmonic generation, filamentation processes, quantum emission and X-ray emission from a solid target by the irradiation of intense laser light, and laser–matter interaction in the ultra-intense regime. The INO Unit of Pisa contributes to the book with a chapter on "Diagnosing Intense and Ultra-Intense Laser-Matter interactions: Status and Future Requirements", by Leonida Gizzi
        Front Cover of the book
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                News by Gizzi Leonida Antonio, for other information write to: leonidaantonio.gizzi@ino.it
        
 News date 11/01/2011Ferraro Pietro elected Fellow of the Optical Society of America 2011
                Ferraro design of OSA Fellow Member awarded 2011 for significant contributions in developing interferometric and holographic methods for characterization of:
 -  materials and devices,
 -  imaging in microscopy,
 -  and fabrication of optical devices for nano-micro-fluidic and nanoprinting.
The news will be published in the February issue of the journal Optics & Photonics News.
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                News by Ferraro Pietro, for other information write to: pietro.ferraro@ino.it
        
 News date 04/01/2011Combs boost sensitivity - Research Highlights Nature Photonics
                The results presented in the paper "Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing", recently published in Science (Science 330, 1081–1084, 2010), have appeared in the Research Highlights section of Nature Photonics (Vol. 5, Jan. 2011).
        Nature Photonics
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                News by Avino Saverio, for other information write to: saverio.avino@ino.it
        

2010
        News date 20/12/2010A 'perfect amplifier' has been realized at INO-CNR
                An ideal amplifier has been realized that is able to increase the intensity of weak light pulses without introducing any additional noise.
The "quantum hi-fi amplifier" realized by INO-CNR has the highest gain and lowest distortions to date: it will be useful for secure quantum communication networks and to get closer to the realization of a quantum computer.
Appeared on Nature Photonics (Advance Online Publication)
See attached CNR press release
        
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                News by Bellini Marco, for other information write to: marco.bellini@ino.it
        
 News date 15/12/2010Centro SIT n. 130 – Viscous Behavior of Fused Silica at Room Temperature
                The Calibration laboratory INO Centro SIT 130 has today reached 10 years of age (12/15/2000 - 15/12/2010). In this period it has provided a certification, consulting and testing service - and research in the field of optical metrology. Of particular importance, as reported by Optics Express: Optics in 2010, the measured stability of the silica glass at room temperature. Based on the high temperature behavior and extrapolation, this effect has been attributed to a glass viscosity in the order of magnitude of 10^40-10^41 Pa s; the observed value is around 10^17-10^18 Pa s, 23 orders of magnitude lower. However, it is the higher viscosity ever measured in a laboratory.
        Shape change of a fused silica flat over the period 1998-2004.
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                News by Vannoni Maurizio, for other information write to: maurizio.vannoni@ino.it
        
 News date 10/12/2010\"Telespazio award\" for the FSL Testing Experiment Container
                The T-EC (Testing Experiment Container) for the EM-Fluid Science Module (whose FM is operating onboard the ISS) is of the winners of the "Telespazio Award for Innovation".@ Telespazio, as part of Finmeccanica Group, organizes each year the Innovation Award Competition: the most challenging and innovative projects developed by Telespazio personnel are selected for the competition, and results and documents are analysed by a dedicated commission.@ The documents presented for the T-EC clearly evidenced, among others, the excellent team work (ESA, TPZ, HFT, CNR-INO).
This year totally 37 projects participated to the competition, and 5 were awarded. The T-EC finished fourth with a “special mention”.
Within INO the following people have partecipated: Alessandro Zuccaro Marchi, Andrea Romoli, Mauro Pucci e Maurizio Vannoni.
                
                News by Zuccaro Marchi Alessandro, for other information write to: alessandro.zuccaro@ino.it
        
 News date 09/12/2010Paper on the intrinsic linewidth of QCLs selected by Optics and Photonics News
                The results on the measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum cascade laser, presented in a recent paper by Bartalini et al. (PRL 104, 083904 (2010)) have appeared on the December issue of the OSA "Journal Optics and Photonics News", in section "Optics in 2010".
        Online cover in Optics and Photonics News
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                News by Mazzotti Davide, for other information write to: davide.mazzotti@ino.it
        
 News date 03/12/2010Evidence of Light Guiding in Ion-Implanted Diamond
                We demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating light-waveguiding microstructures in bulk single-crystal diamond by means of direct ion implantation with a scanning microbeam, resulting in the modulation of the refractive index of the ion-beam damaged crystal.
Direct evidence of waveguiding through such buried microchannels is obtained with a phase-shift micro-interferometric method allowing the study of the multimodal structure of the propagating electromagnetic field.
The possibility of defining optical and photonic structures by direct ion writing opens a range of new possibilities in the design of quantum-optical devices in bulk single-crystal diamond.
        
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                News by Vannoni Maurizio, for other information write to: maurizio.vannoni@ino.it
        
 News date 02/12/2010Book of Springer Series in Surface Sciences vol.46: Coherent Light Microscopy - Imaging and Quantitative Phase Analysis
                Is in press and available for purchase on-line the book of Springer:
"Coherent Light Microscopy-Imaging and Quantitative Phase Analysis", Pietro Ferraro, Adam Wax e Zeev Zalevsky Editors.
INO of Napoli has contributed with three chapters and Pietro Ferraro is an editor.
        Cover of the book
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                News by Merola Francesco, for other information write to: francesco.merola@ino.it
        
 News date 29/10/2010Science - Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing
                The work entitled "Probing the ultimate limit of fiber-optic strain sensing" has been published on Science Express, (the publication on Science is expected to be on November 2010).
Published Online October 28, 2010
Science DOI: 10.1126/science.1195818
Strain measurements are crucial in several fields for both applied and fundamental research, spanning from structural engineering to aerospace, from geophysics to nanotechnology, up to the ultrasensitive gravitational wave detectors, complex long baseline interferometers (3-4 km arm length). On smaller scales, of the order of centimeters, fiber-optic sensors are widespread tools for high sensitivity measurements. The paper shows the development of a fiber-optic strain sensor based on a Bragg-grating resonator with a diode laser source that is stabilized against a quartz-disciplined optical frequency comb, thereby approaching detection limits set by thermodynamic phase fluctuations in the fiber.
Here is possible to view a full article only by this site.
They are available in the summary page, the support materials, the third command menu on the left.
        
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                News by Avino Saverio, for other information write to: saverio.avino@ino.it
        
 News date 20/10/2010Magnetized Solitons in Laser Plasmas
                Coherent structures such as solitons and vortices are typical features of self-organized physical systems, such as plasmas interacting with superintense laser pulses where coherent structures are of electromagnetic nature. An experiment based on the "proton probing" technique with picosecond temporal resolution, supported by large scale numerical simulations, has given evidence of a new type of organized patterns of structures having features typical of both electromagnetic "solitons" or "cavitons" and magnetostatic vortices. The research team include two scientists from the Pisa research unit "A.Gozzini" of INO: Carlo A. Cecchetti, who contributed to the experimental part, and Andrea Macchi, who contributed to the theoretical interpretation and the numerical simulations: see also Macchi et al, Plasma Phys. Contr. Fus. 49, B71-B78 (2007).
        Published on Physical Review Letters
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                News by Macchi Andrea, for other information write to: andrea.macchi@ino.it
        
 News date 24/08/2010Directional Bremsstrahlung from a Ti laser-produced X-ray source at relativistic intensities in the 3-12 keV range
                “Directional Bremsstrahlung from a Ti laser-produced X-ray source at relativistic intensities in the 3-12 keV range”, by F. Zamponi et al., PRL, 105, 085001 (2010).
Ultraintense laser-matter interactions is a growing field of experimental and theoretical research due to the promising applications in laser fusion and novel radiation and particle sources. These applications are driving the recently proposed European Research Infrastructures HiPER[1] and ELI[2].
In the laser-matter interaction process, a significant part of the laser energy is taken by the so-called fast electrons giving rise to very intense currents of relativistic electrons, well above the Alfven limit. A full description of these phenomena is still lacking and is the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical research.
Il paper just published on Physical Review Letters[3] describes a new experimental study of the dynamics of these fast electrons based upon the measurement of the X-ray radiation emitted by fast electrons during transport in matter.
Thanks to a new technique developed at the Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory in Pisa[4] it was possible to identify the contribution of directional Bremsstrahlung, decoupling it from the contribution due to isotropic fluorescence emission typically used so far for these class of measurements.
These results open the way to a new investigation tool and extend the potential applications of plasma produced by laser-plasma interactions at relativistic intensities.
The experimental campaign was carried out by researchers of the ILIL-INO Lab in Pisa, in collaboration with the Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics of the Friedrich-Schiller-Universität (Jena) in the LASERLAB[5] framework for access to laser facilities. This activity is also part of National MIUR funded programmes (PRIN e FIRB) ed EU-FP7 funded programmes (HiPER).
Leonida A. GIZZI
la.gizzi@ino.it
http://ilil.ino.it
[1] http://www.hiper-laser.org
[2] http://www.extreme-light-infrastructure.eu/
[3] http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v105/i8/e085001
[4] http://ilil.ino.it
[5] http://www.laserlab-europe.net/
        Experimental set up for X-ray study of relativistic laser-plasma interactions with a solid target.
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                News by Gizzi Leonida Antonio, for other information write to: leonidaantonio.gizzi@ino.it
        
 News date 24/05/2010An interesting description on the liquid nano-dispenser based on pyro-electrohydrodynamic effect published online in the Nanowerk Spotlights section
                The article "Shooting nano-droplets" related to the work of Ferraro et al. "Dispensing nano-pico droplets and liquid patterning by pyroelectrodynamic shooting" has been published in the Spotlights section of the Nanowerk website, a leading information site for nanoscience and nanotechnology.
        Nanowerk
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                News by Coppola Sara, for other information write to: SIR00264@ino.it
        
 News date 12/05/2010The paper on the intrinsic width of QCLs mentioned on Physics Today - May 2010
                The results on the measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of a quantum cascade laser, presented in a recent paper by Bartalini et al. (PRL 104, 083904 (2010)) have appeared on the May issue of Physics Today.
        
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                News by Bartalini Saverio, for other information write to: saverio.bartalini@ino.it
        
 News date 11/05/2010Nature Nanotechnology: Highly flexible liquid nano-dispenser based on pyro-electrohydrodynamic effect
                The article "Dispensing nano-pico droplets and liquid patterning by pyroelectrodynamic shooting" by P. Ferraro, S. Coppola, S. Grilli, M. Paturzo & V. Vespini has been published online in the section "Advance online publication (AOP)" of Nature Nanotechnology and is going to appear in the number of June of the journal. (http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/index.html) Published online: 09 May 2010 | doi:10.1038/nnano.2010.82 The article presents a new concept of electrohydrodynamic-based droplet generation called pyro-electrohydrodynamic shooting for direct drawing and dispensing droplets down to atto-litres and radius down to around 300 nm from liquid drop or film reservoirs. This technique does not require electrodes, high voltage circuit connections or special capillary nozzles, in fact the electric fields are generated pyroelectrically using functionalized substrates of Lithium Niobate. Abstract's link: http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2010.82.html
        Optical image of typical liquid printing of separate droplets.
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                News by Coppola Sara, for other information write to: SIR00264@ino.it
        
 News date 26/04/2010Synthesis and display of dynamic holographic 3D scenes with real-world objects
                 Published in Optics Express the paper "Synthesis and display of dynamic holographic 3D scenes with real-world objects". (Optics Express, Vol. 18, Iss. 9, pg. 8806 (2010). ) by M. Paturzo et al. (http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/issue.cfm)
The cover of Optics Express shows a movie that demonstrates the new method developed during the reasearch activity for rhe FP7 "Real 3D" reaarch project (http://www.digitalholography.eu/index.html)
                
                News by Ferraro Pietro, for other information write to: pietro.ferraro@ino.it
        
 News date 23/04/2010Scattering in mixed dimensions with ultracold gases
                The dimensionality of a physical system bears a profound influence on its properties. By employing ultracold atoms, we have engineered mixtures whose components live in different dimensionality and we observed their interactions. We report on the experimental investigation of the collisions between 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional atoms, the latter being confined on a plane. Peculiar scattering resonances, caused by the confinement of one component, are found.
Particles living in different dimensionality and nonetheless interacting are of interest in other physical domains, first and foremost in Cosmology.
        The paper is published in Physical Review Letters
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                News by Minardi Francesco, for other information write to: francesco.minardi@ino.it
        
 News date 25/03/2010Cavity ring-down: extension of the spectroscopic technique to saturated-absorption regime
                One of the most sensitive spectroscopic techniques, namely cavity ring-down, has been extended by a group of researchers at INO-CNR to the saturated-absorption regime for the gas. The improvement is twofold: increased sensitivity through a more effective removal of background fluctuations due to the empty cavity, and sub-Doppler frequency resolution is obtained.
        Published in PRL
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                News by Mazzotti Davide, for other information write to: davide.mazzotti@ino.it
        
 News date 24/03/2010First observation of the intrinsic linewidth of a Quantum Cascade Laser.
                Since the advent of the first laser, the spectral purity of these devices was assumed to be limited by the unavoidable presence of spontaneous emission, as elegantly expressed by the Schawlow-Townes formula. Indeed, this limit does not apply to Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs), according to CNR-INO researchers that have directly measured the intrinsic linewidht of a QCL. They provided the first experimental confirmation of a new theory, that predicts the overcoming of this limit and the achievement of an exceptional intrinsic spectral purity.
        Selected for 'Editors' suggestion' in PRL
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                News by Bartalini Saverio, for other information write to: saverio.bartalini@ino.it
        
 News date 16/03/2010Science - Random quantum networks
                Science - Random quantum networks
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                News by Wiersma Diederik Sybolt, for other information write to: SIR00360@ino.it
        
 News date 18/02/2010Caravaggio's secrets discovered by the 'Multi-NIR' of the INO-CNR Art Diagnostics Group
                The Multi-NIR scanner developped by the INO-CNR Art Diagnostics Group discovered an important underdrawing in the "Cena in Emmaus" by Caravaggio.
        "Cena in Emmaus",
Caravaggio
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                News by Baldanzi Elisabetta, for other information write to: elisabetta.baldanzi@ino.it
        
 News date 14/01/2010Results by the INOA Quantum Optics Group have been selected among the OSA "Best of 2009".
                The experiments performed by the INOA group of Quantum Optics on light manipulation by the controlled subtraction of single photons have been selected among the best results of 2009 by the Optical Society of America in a special issue of "Optics and Photonics News".
        
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                News by Bellini Marco, for other information write to: marco.bellini@ino.it
        

2009
        News date 01/09/2009Freedive Goggles CNR-INOA on national networks
                The Freedive Goggles CNR-INOA are described in national networks as TV (LA7, Canale10), radio (Radio24, EcoRadio) and freedive magazine (Pescare Apnea)
        Apnea Goggles CNR-INOA
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                News by Mercatelli Luca, for other information write to: luca.mercatelli@ino.it
        
 News date 29/07/2009Installation of an infrasonic array on volcano Asama in strong cooperation with the Volcano Research Center (VRC) of Earthquake Research Institute (ERI), University of Tokyo
                Poggi P. and M.Ripepe (DST UniFi) went in June in Japan in Tokyo to the installation of an infrasonic array on volcano Asama cooperation with the Volcano Research Center (VRC) of Earthquake Research Institute (ERI), University of Tokyo. The array developed consists of 4 stations equipped with 5 differential pressure transducers deployed in a star configuration at 1500 m of distance from the crater. At June 10 the final check of instruments and data transmission is good. The array is now properly working and most of the problems linked to data transmission to Asama Volcano Observatory, and then to ERI in Tokyo, have been partially solved.
        
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                News by Ciamberlini Claudio, for other information write to: claudio.ciamberlini@ino.it
        
 News date 03/04/2009Cylindrical Liquid Lens fabrication on a Lithium Niobate substrate
                We found that by opportune functionalization of a polar dielectric substrate, self-arrangement of hemicylindrical or toroidal-shaped liquid droplets can obtained. The process takes place when a thermal stimuli is provided to the substrate and a liquid layer is deposited on its surface. The self arrangement is due to the pyroelectric effect. We investigated this open microfluidic system for exploiting liquid cylindrical microlens with a variable focal length.
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                News by Miccio Lisa, for other information write to: lisa.miccio@ino.it
        
 News date 27/03/2009The work of the Quantum Optics group at INOA has been selected among the "BEST OF 2008" by the New Journal of Physics
                A work on the controlled subtraction of single photons and the test of optical coherent state properties by the Quantum Optics group at INOA has been selected among the "BEST OF 2008" by the New Journal of Physics. See http://www.iop.org/EJ/journal/-page=extra.bestof2008/1367-2630
        NJP "Best of 2008
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                News by Bellini Marco, for other information write to: marco.bellini@ino.it
        
 News date 25/02/2009Tunable liquid microlens arrays in electrode-less configuration and their accurate characterization by interference microscopy
                The microlenses are generated by electrowetting effect under an electrode-less configuration and they exhibit two different regimes that are named as separated lens regime (SLR) and wave-like lens regime (WLR). The two lens regimes exhibit different optical properties. A digital holography technique is used to reconstruct the transmitted wavefront during focusing and a focal length variation in the millimetre range is observed.
        
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                News by Miccio Lisa, for other information write to: lisa.miccio@ino.it
        
 News date 07/01/2009New experiments on the addition and subtraction of single photons
                The INOA Quantum Optics group has obtained new fundamental results by the controlled addition and subtraction of single photons on arbitrary light states.
        
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                News by Bellini Marco, for other information write to: marco.bellini@ino.it
        

2008
        News date 18/11/2008Numerical multiplexing and demultiplexing of digital holographic information for remote reconstruction in amplitude and phase
                We proove the possibility to multiplexing and demultiplexing numerically digital holograms to optimize their storage and/or transmission process. We show that it is possible to retrieve correctly quantitative information about the amplitude and phase of one hundred hologram.
        
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                News by Miccio Lisa, for other information write to: lisa.miccio@ino.it
        
 News date 18/11/2008in the CNR's "Almanacco della Scienza" published the INOA's research on anomalies in Color Vision
                On the special issue devoted to OPtics in the CNR's "Almanacco della Scienza" you can find the description of the research conducted by the Vision Science Lab with CSO Ophthalmic. This research is devoted to monitor test on color vision. The link (unfotunately only in italian) is http://www.almanacco.rm.cnr.it/articoli.asp?ID_rubrica=1&nome_file=01_19_2008
        
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                News by Farini Alessandro, for other information write to: alessandro.farini@ino.it
        
 News date 14/10/2008Ferroelectric Crystals for Photonic Applications which was published on Sep 26, 2008
                Ferroelectric Crystals for Photonic Applications which was published on Sep 26, 2008
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                News by Ferraro Pietro, for other information write to: pietro.ferraro@ino.it
        
 News date 23/07/2008Tsunami early warning system
                Within the project for the monitoring of the eruptive activity of Stromboli volcano and for the prevention of possible tsunamis, a buoy has been located under the Sciara side of Stromboli.
The project is in cooperation with the Hearth Science Department (DST) of Florence.
This particular buoy called “MEDA” is equipped with geophysics and oceanographic sensors; data are collected and sent in real time to the acquisition data centre of COA in Stromboli by means of a radio relay system.
Then data are immediately available to the Italian Centro Nazionale della Protezione Civile.
        
                
                News by Ciamberlini Claudio, for other information write to: claudio.ciamberlini@ino.it
        
 News date 08/07/2008The freediving world recordman Umberto Pelizzari tests the CNR-INOA freediving glasses
                The freediving world recordman Umberto Pelizzari (19 world record) has performed a test on the freediving glasses relized in CNR-INOA on an optical project by Photometry and Lighting Lab.
This protothype allows a clear vision underwater when the eye is dipped in water. The eye is dipped in order to avoid the equalization problems when freediving deep in the blue.
        
                
                News by Mercatelli Luca, for other information write to: luca.mercatelli@ino.it
        
 News date 07/05/2008Project REAL 3D
                216105 Real 3D 28.09.2007 Page 1 of 106 SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME THEME FP7-ICT-2007-1 Information and Communication Technologies Grant agreement for: Small or medium-scale focused research project Annex I - “Description of Work” Project acronym: Real 3D Project full title: Digital holography for 3D and 4D real-world objects' capture, processing, and display Grant agreement no.: 216105 Date of preparation of Annex I (latest version): 28.09.2007 Date of approval of Annex I by Commission: (to be completed by Commission) Th eporject started offcielly on 1st Feb. 2008
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                News by Ferraro Pietro, for other information write to: pietro.ferraro@ino.it
        
 News date 17/03/2008Installed at Montseerat island an infrasonic opto-array to survey a Soufrière volcanoes in collaboration with local Observatory
                A new infrasound sensors array system, based on optical fibre transmission, has been realized to monitor the explosiv activity of the Soufrière volcano at Montserrat. The system is composed by an 4 channels receiver central station, recording data from 4 low power sensor nodes, measuring the following parameters:
 -  Infrasound signal (16 bits).
 -  Temperature (1°C accuracy).
 -  Voltage of battery (8 bits).
The Etna infrasound network has a “star” configuration, organized in 4 stations, working like “antennas” to provide in real-time the propagation azimuth of the sonic beam. According to the geometry of the array it’s possible to resolve the infrasound source position by grid searching algorithm calculating in real-time the cross-correlation between the single station. The infrasound signal, acquired by a microphone, is filtered by an active, low noise, 5 order, 20Hz low pass filter, then it is acquired by a 16 bit ADC at a rate of 50 samples/sec. The user can set an amplification factor of 0,1/0,5/1/10.
        
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                News by Ciamberlini Claudio, for other information write to: claudio.ciamberlini@ino.it
        

2007
        News date 31/10/2007Quantitative Phase Microscopy of microstructures with extended measurement range and correction of chromatic aberrations by multiwavelength digital holography
                A new procedure has been implemented to improve accuracy and remove 2pi ambiguity in Quantitative Phase Contrast Imaging performed by Multiwavelength Digital Holography.
        
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                News by Miccio Lisa, for other information write to: lisa.miccio@ino.it
        
 News date 01/10/2007Quantum maths with single photons
                The results of experiments on the manipulation of single photons and the test of the fundaments of quantum mechanics have been published in Science.
        
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                News by Bellini Marco, for other information write to: marco.bellini@ino.it
        
 News date 05/08/2007New igeneration of nfrasonic detector system survey the explosive activity of Etna volcaneos in Italy
                A new infrasound sensors array system, based on optical fibre transmission, has been realized to monitor the explosiv activity of the Etna volcano. The system is composed by an 8 channels receiver central station, recording data from 4 low power sensor nodes, measuring the following parameters:
 -  Infrasound signal (16 bits).
 -  Temperature (1°C accuracy).
 -  Voltage of battery (8 bits).
The Etna infrasound network has a “star” configuration, organized in 4 stations, working like “antennas” to provide in real-time the propagation azimuth of the sonic beam. According to the geometry of the array it’s possible to resolve the infrasound source position by grid searching algorithm calculating in real-time the cross-correlation between the single station. The infrasound signal, acquired by a microphone, is filtered by an active, low noise, 5 order, 20Hz low pass filter, then it is acquired by a 16 bit ADC at a rate of 50 samples/sec. The user can set an amplification factor of 0,1/0,5/1/10.
        New infrasound detector was installed in Etna volcaneo
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                News by Ciamberlini Claudio, for other information write to: claudio.ciamberlini@ino.it
        
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